Martin Surname

Martin is an extremely common name throughout the English-speaking world and, in its many variants form, throughout Europe, stemming from a diminutive of the Latin Martius, the god of war. its popularity is largely due to the widespread fame of the fourth-century saint, Martin of Tours. In Ireland, the surname may be of English,, Scottish or native Irish origin. The best-known Martins, powerful in west Galway and Galway city for centuries were of English extraction, having arrived with the Normans. They claim descent form Oliver Martin who fought in the Crusades.

The largest number of Irish origin stem from the Mac Giolla Mhairtín, "son of the follower of (St.) Martin", also anglicised as "Gilmartin", who were a branch of the O’Neills. They originally held territory in the barony of Clogher in Co. Tyrone, but were displaced westwards into the adjoining counties of Sligo and Leitrim where they are most numerous today. In Scotland, the name originated from Mac Gille Mhartainn, which was first anglicised MacMartin, and then Martin. Martins were one of the three principal branches of the Clan Cameron; there was a separate family, based in Skye, who were part of the Clan Donald.

A large majority of Martins in Ireland in 1890, almost 60%, were based in Ulster, suggesting a Scottish origin for most Irish Martins. Richard Martin ("Nimble Dick") was the source of the family fortune of the Martins of Galway. He seized vast tracts of land in west Galway from the O’Flahertys in the great land transfers of the 17th century. His great-grandson, also Richard Martin ("Humanity Dick") (1754-1834), was the most famous member of the family. He was a passionate supporter of animal welfare – hence the nickname, given him by the Prince Regent, – and was one of the founders of the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. John Martin (1812-75), born in Newry C. Down, was brother-in-law and political ally of John Mitchel, the founder of the United Irishman. He was transported to Tasmania for his political activities. On his return to Ireland he was elected a Home Rule M.P. for Meath. he was known throughout the country as "Honest John Martin".




Leonard Travis Cranford (CSA)

Leonard Travis Cranford
12th Regiment of Alabama Infantry

Civil War Service Record

L. T. (Trav) Cranford actually had two enlistment's in the 12th Alabama. The first started in March 12, 1862. He enlisted at Coosa County, Alabama to serve 3 years and was paid a bounty of $50.00. It indicates he was born in Perry County, Alabama, in October of 1862 he was 22 years old, 5 feet 11 inches tall and his occupation was a farmer.

  • Yorktown Siege – April – May 1862

He entered the Chimborazo Hospital No 3, Richmond, VA on April 17, 1862 and was transferred to the C.S.A. General Hospital, Farmville, VA on May 22, 1862.

  • Williamsburg – May 5, 1862
  • Seven Pines – May 31-June 1, 1862
  • Gaines' Mill – June 21, 1862
  • Malvern Hill – July 1, 1862
  • South Mountain – September 14, 1862
  • Antietam – September 14, 1862

He was discharged with a Certificate of Disability for Discharge on October 3, 1862. Discharge recorded viewed below. His condition was pulmonary hemorrhage following measles.

  • Fredericksburg – December 13, 1862

He enlisted again on February 15, 1863 at Adams Store, Alabama for the period of the War.

  • Chancellorsville – May 1-4, 1863
  • NOTE: During the march to Gettysburg, Gen Rodes Brigade, including the 12th Alabama, lead the vanguard. They pushed as far north as Carlisle Barracks. The northernmost point reached by the Confederate Army. They then turned back to join Gen Lee at Gettysburg.
  • Gettysburg – July 1-3, 1863
  • The Wilderness – May 5-6, 1864
  • Spotsylvania Court House – May 8-21, 1864
  • North Anna – May 23-26, 1864
  • Cold Harbor – June 1-3, 1864
  • Lynchburg Campaign – June 1864
  • Monocacy – July 9, 1864
  • Winchester – September 19, 1864 – wounded, left thigh
  • Fisher's Hill – September 22, 1864
  • Cedar Creek – October 19, 1864
  • Petersburg Siege – December 1864 – April 1865

Wounded on April 2, 1865 at the Battle of Petersburg, VA. Admitted to the General Hospital, Howard's Grove, Richmond, VA. There he was captured after the surrender at Appomatox and transferred via US Steamer Mary Powell to the Point Lookout, MD hospital. He is listed there on the Roll of Prisoner of War, May 12, 1865.

  • Appomotax Court House – April 9, 1865

On July 19, 1865 he took the Oath of Allegiance and was transferred to Jackson Hospital, Richmond, VA on July 21, 1865. He was discharged in September 1865.

I have views of various information from his service record below. Some of these are large graphics so be patient if you load them.

Confederate Service Record
Main Envelope
Roll of Prisoners of War Oath of Allegiance
Certificate of Disability Discharge

{ln:Cranford ' Biography of Leonard Travis Cranford}




Captain Samuel Martin at King’s Mountain

RESEARCHER’S NOTES:

Participation of Captain Samuel Martin in the Battle of King’s Mountain.

During the latter part of August and the whole of September, Captain Martin was rarely at home, and then not remaining for more than two days at a time. About the last week of September be marched with his company by a circuitous route, under Colonel Graham, to the Cowpens. There, he united with Colonels. Campbell, Shelby, Sevier, Cleaveland and other officers and marched with them to King’s Mountain. In this battle Captain Martin acted a conspicuous part, was in the thickest of the fight, and lost six of his company. After this battle he continued on active scouting duties wherever his services were needed.

Excerpt from Sketches of Western North Carolina, Cyrus L. Hunter, 1877

Samuel Martin was born in Ireland in 1732, where he married Margaret McCurdy, and migrated to Pennsylvania. While there, he served in the old French and Indian war, removing to North Carolina, he served on the Snow campaign in 1775; on the frontiers in 1776; and went to the relief of Charleston in 1779-80. In June, 1780, he was made Captain, serving under Rutherford; and was at the capture of Rugeley ‘s Tories, and at King’s Mountain. In 1781, he opposed Cornwallis at Cowan’s Ford, and afterwards served awhile under General Pickens; and then commanded a company under Colonel William Polk at Eutaw Springs. Surviving his companion, he died in Gaston County, November twenty-sixth, 1836, at the great age of one hundred and four years.

Except from King’s Mountain and It’s Heroes, Lyman C Draper, LL.D, 1881

Then marched to Fishing Creek in pursuit of the tory officer Cunningham, out about 10 days in pursuit, the middle of August. During the latter part of August and to Ocotber, at the time of the battle of Camden (Gates defeat) and the march of Cornwallis towards Charlotte was out constantly, not being at home two days at a time. Late in September marching a circuitious route to Gilberttown, under Col Graham, where fell in with Col Campbell and Shelby, and marched to Battle of King’s Mountain where I commanded 20 men, 4 of whom were killed on the ground and 2 died shortly after.

Marched in pursuit of Cornwallis, to harrass his trains in crossing the Catawba River. Was under the command of Col Wm Graham of Tryon County. Col Campbell commanded at King’s Mountain, Col Graham having left before the action, the command of the regiment devolving on Joseph Dixon. Graham’s commission was taken away on account of his conduct on that occasion.

Declaration of Samuel Martin dated May 13, 1833, aged listed as 99 years.

I volunteered as private in declarant’s company just before the Battle of Ramseurs Mill in Tryon County (now Lincoln) and continued subject to his command until after the Battle of King’s Mountain in which I was under his command. He commanded about 20 men, 6 of whom fell. He was recognized as Capt until the end of the war. I have known him from boyhood, and have all the time lived in his neighborhood.

Statement by Andy Barry, 13 May 1833

Was with Capt Martin at Battle of King’s Mountain and many other places in Lincoln County. He was recognized as Capt from that time to the close of war. Have lived as neighbor to him ever since I was a small boy.

Statement by Samuel Caldwell, 13 May 1833

Was informed and believes Samuel Martin acted as Capt of militia at siege of Charleston. Deponent marched to Gilberttown (now Rutherford) where he found Colonels Shelby and Campbell. Capt Martin was there and marched to King’s Mountain and there commanded a company. In consequence of "Lord Wallace" army being in the neighborhood the militia was constantly out. Deponent was frequently with Capt Martin frequently on other tours and believes he served his country as he stated. Deponent has known him ever since.

Capt Samuel Caldwell – October 24th, 1833

END OF RESEARCHER’S NOTE

Historians consider the Battle of Kings Mountain to be the "turning point in the South" in America’s War for Independence. The victory of Patriots over Loyalist troops destroyed the left wing of Cornwallis’ army. The battle also effectively ended, at least temporarily, the British advance into North Carolina. Lord Cornwallis was forced to retreat from Charlotte into South Carolina to wait for reinforcements. The victory of the Overmountain Men allowed General Nathaniel Greene the opportunity to reorganize the American Army.

When British General Henry Clinton learned of his men’s defeat at Kings Mountain, he is reported to have called it "the first link of a chain of evils" that he feared might lead to the collapse of the British plans to quash the Patriot rebellion. He was right. American forces went on to defeat the British at Cowpens. A little more than a year after Kings Mountain, Washington accepted Cornwallis’s surrender at Yorktown, Virginia.

The battle, fought October 7th, 1780, proved to be the turning point in the British Southern campaign. The American Continental army suffered successive defeats at Charleston, Waxhaws, and Camden, South Carolina, in the summer of 1780. By the fall, only the voluntary militia units remained in the field to oppose the armies of Cornwallis.

To recruit and equip militia loyal to the British cause, Cornwallis sent Major Patrick Ferguson into the western Carolinas. He was to raise a loyal militia army and suppress the remaining Patriot militia. Intending to cow the Patriots, in September he sent a proclamation to the mountain settlements, telling them to lay down their arms, or he would march his army west, and "lay waste the countryside with fire and sword."

The result was the march of the famous Overmountain men from the Sycamore Shoals of the Watauga River across the mountains in search of Ferguson. Overcoming hunger, weather, wrangling, and intrigue, the Patriots attacked and destroyed Ferguson’s Loyalists at Kings Mountain.

The Patriot army, nominally under the command of William Campbell from Virginia, contained strong leaders who managed to combine their efforts. John Sevier would go on to serve as Tennessee’s first governor. Isaac Shelby would be Kentucky’s first governor. Benjamin Cleveland would serve as a civic leader and judge in North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. Joseph Winston, Joseph McDowell, Andrew Hampton, William Chronicle, and Joseph Hambright all led troops from North Carolina. William Hill, Edward Lacey, and James Williams led contingents from South Carolina. William Candler led a small group from Georgia.

Charles McDowell from North Carolina helped organize the army. But he stepped aside before the battle to preserve a united Patriot army.

PATRICK FERGUSON — KEEN RIFLEMAN

The leader of the Loyalist troops was Major Patrick Ferguson. Ferguson would be the only British regular to serve at Kings Mountain. All other soldiers were Americans — Patriot and Loyalist.

Joining the British army at age 15, Ferguson was a well known marksman and the inventor of a breechloading rifle. The son of a Scottish judge, Ferguson had an affable disposition, a gentle face and was slight of build. Nevertheless, his soldiers named him "Bulldog."

Ferguson distinguished himself early on in his military career. Serving as a cornet in the Royal North British Dragoons, Ferguson was considered by his superiors as a courageous fighter during the wars of Flanders and Germany in the 1760’s. In 1768, he joined the Seventieth Regiment of Foot in the West Indies, where British troops engaged in guerilla warfare with the native Carib tribes. Ferguson went for garrison duty at Halifax, Nova Scotia in 1773 but soon became bored.

Ferguson’s ability with a rifle was well known. While visiting his family’s estate in Scotland before the American Revolution, he began to develop a rifle of his own. After completing the invention, Ferguson displayed the rifle for military leaders and even King George III witnessed one of Ferguson’s demonstrations.

During one demonstration, Ferguson fired at a rate of 4-6 shots per minute during pouring rain and high wind. Apparently, Ferguson only missed the target three times while firing from a distance of 200 yards — this was not possible with the British Brown Bess musket. A patent was issued and a limited number of the breechloading rifles were produced. Ferguson established an elite rifle corps which joined Sir Henry Clinton in America. Their mission: to help stop the rebellion in the colonies.

FERGUSON HAS WASHINGTON IN HIS SIGHTS

At the Battle of Brandywine (September 11, 1777), Ferguson was wounded in the arm and his rifle corps was later disbanded. The Ferguson rifles were removed and very few have been seen since. There is no evidence that the Ferguson rifle was used at the Battle of Kings Mountain.

It was at the Battle of Brandywine that Ferguson distinguished himself further though many did not know about it until the 20th century. Scholars believe that  Ferguson was the British soldier who had George Washington in his gun sight. Ferguson did not pull the trigger, saying that "it is ungentlemanly to shoot a man in the back of the head." 

Ferguson himself mentioned the incident in a letter he dictated a few months later. During the battle, he did not realize the identity of the American officer. While recuperating in the hospital from his arm injury, he discovered that the American officer in question was George Washington. Ferguson wrote that even if he had known, he would not have pulled the trigger. Ferguson’s letters are available in the library at Edinburgh University.

Ferguson later fought in the battles of Monmouth and Little Egg Harbor. He was also active in many other battles in the New York and Hudson area. Impressing his superiors with his valor, Ferguson was promoted to Major in 1779.

Late that year, he was selected to command a corps of 300 men, called the American Volunteers. The men were Loyalists, handpicked from units in the New York and New Jersey area. The corps, along with Ferguson, arrived in the South in early February 1780. Ferguson, a persuasive individual, immediately gathered support in Savannah and Augusta before Clinton ordered him to Charleston.

During the invasion of that city, Ferguson worked with the legendary Banastre Tarleton, who had angered many Patriots after his massacre of soldiers trying to surrender to him at Waxhaw. Author Washington Irving later wrote that Ferguson and Tarleton were "equally intrepid and determined but Ferguson is cooler, and more open to the impulses of humanity." In fact, some researchers believe that Ferguson despised Tarleton’s methods.

After Charleston fell, Ferguson was appointed to the position of Inspector General of the Militia. Clinton and Cornwallis gave him the mission to organize a volunteer corps of Loyalists troops. Ferguson’s men thought highly of him — he had a natural ability to gain their affection and respect. The Scot was known for spending hours in conversations with the ordinary people around the villages and towns in South Carolina. South Carolina remained a Loyalist stronghold until the end of the war, largely due to his influence.

 

PRELUDE TO BATTLE

During the summer of 1780, Ferguson and his provincial corps of 150 traveled through South Carolina and into North Carolina gathering support for His Majesty’s cause. While marching through the upcountry of South Carolina, the Loyalists engaged in minor skirmishes with militia regiments. Some of those small battles happened at places like Wofford’s Iron Works, Musgrove’s Mill, Thicketty Fort, and Cedar Spring. However in August, after the Americans lost at the Battle of Camden, the Over Mountain Men retired to their homes in western North Carolina to rest before going after Ferguson again.

THE MARCH TO KINGS MOUNTAIN

Meanwhile in September, Cornwallis invaded North Carolina. His final objective was to march into Virginia. To protect his troops from guerilla attack, Cornwallis ordered Ferguson to move northward into western North Carolina before joining the main British Army in Charlotte.

In late September, Ferguson camped at Gilbert Town (near present day Rutherfordton). He sent a message to Colonel Isaac Shelby, whom he considered to be the leader of the "backwater men." The message said that if Shelby and his men did not stop their opposition to the British, Ferguson would march his army over the mountains, hang their leaders and "lay the country waste with fire and sword." The Patriots would have none of it.

On September 25, Patriot leaders and Colonels Charles McDowell, John Sevier, Isaac Shelby and William Campbell gathered at Sycamore Shoals on the Watauga River (near present day Tennessee). They marched five days over the snow covered mountains to the Quaker Meadows Plantation owned by McDowell’s family (in present day Morganton). There, they were joined by  more frontiersmen including those serving under Benjamin Cleveland and Joseph Winston. The troops marched toward Gilbert Town and Ferguson.

Spies told Ferguson the Patriots were on their way. Ferguson had stayed at Gilbert Town hoping to intercept another Patriot force, heading northward. Calling in reinforcements, the Scot began to march toward Charlotte to receive the protection of Cornwallis’ main army. He sent an appeal to loyal North Carolinians  — for them to save themselves from the "backwater men…a set of mongrels." Late on October 6, Ferguson received word from his spies that the Americans were close behind him. Camping at Kings Mountain, near the North Carolina border, he sent a message to Cornwallis requesting reinforcements. "Three or four hundred good soldiers," he wrote, "would finish the business. Something must be done soon." Desperately short of provisions, Ferguson sent out a foraging party of 150 men. He then organized a defense and prepared to meet the enemy.

When the Patriots realized that Ferguson was not at Gilbert Town, they became determined to pursue and fight him. The soldiers followed Ferguson, leaving their weak comrades and horses at Gilbert Town. On October 6 at Cowpens in South Carolina, the Over Mountain Men were joined by 400 South Carolinians under Colonel James Williams and others. The soldiers learned from spy Joseph Kerr that Ferguson was definitely camped about 30 miles ahead in the vicinity of Kings Mountain. Shelby was especially pleased to learn that Ferguson was quoted as saying,   that he "was on Kings Mountain, that he was king of that mountain and that God Almighty and all the Rebels of hell could not drive him from it."

The seven colonels chose Campbell as their officer of the day to carry out the plans they adopted collectively. Fearing Ferguson would escape, the colonels selected 900 of their best men to pursue the Loyalists.

The Patriots marched through the night and the next day, through pouring rain and intermittent showers. They reached Kings Mountain the next day, Saturday October 7 just after noon.

Kings Mountain is an outlying portion of the Blue Ridge Mountains. A heavily rocky and wooded area, the mountain rises 60 feet above the plain surrounding it. The campsite was supposedly an ideal place for Ferguson to camp because the mountain has a plateau at its summit. The plateau is 600 yards long and 70 feet wide at one end and 120 feet wide at the other. The Scot considered the summit too steep to be scaled.

THE BATTLE BEGINS

Upon arriving at Kings Mountain, the Patriot soldiers dismounted. After tying up the horses, the soldiers formed in a horseshoe around the base of the mountain behind their leaders, who remained on horseback.

Ferguson was right in believing that his would be attackers would expose themselves to musket fire if they attempted to scale the summit. But Ferguson did not realize his men could only fire if they went out into the open, exposing themselves to musket fire. Most of the Patriot troops were skilled hunters who routinely killed fast moving animals. On this day, Ferguson’s men would not find escape an easy task.

The fighting began around 3 p.m. when some of Ferguson’s men noticed the Patriot soldiers surrounding the mountain. After a brief skirmish, the shooting began in earnest when two of the Patriot regiments opened fire on the Loyalists simultaneously. The Loyalists fired back but the Patriots were protected by the heavily wooded area.

The regiments commanded by Colonels Isaac Shelby and William Campbell marched toward Ferguson’s men but were driven back twice by Loyalist fire. But as one regiment was driven back, another would advance. Ferguson had to shift his reserves from one place to another while continuing to take heavy losses from the concealed American sharpshooters in the trees. Eventually, other Patriot troops provided enough support that Shelby and Campbell’s regiments reached the summit.

During the battle, Patrick Ferguson commanded his men with the use of a silver whistle. Many Patriot fighters later recalled hearing the sound of Ferguson’s whistle over the sound of the rifle fire. The whistle and the checkered hunting shirt he wore over his uniform made the Scottish commander quite noticeable on the battlefield.

After nearly an hour of fighting, Ferguson suddenly fell from his horse. One foot was hanging in his stirrup — several, perhaps as many as eight bullets were in his body. Some accounts say he died before he hit the ground. Other accounts say that his men propped him against a tree, where he died. Ferguson was the only British soldier killed in the battle — all others were Americans, either Loyalist or Patriot.

Ferguson’s second in command then ordered that a white flag of surrender be hoisted.

Despite the call for surrender by the Loyalists, the Patriots could not immediately stop their men from shooting. Many Patriots remembered that the infamous Colonel Tarleton had mowed down Patriot troops at Waxhaw despite the fact that the troops were trying to surrender. Eventually, the fighting at Kings Mountain stopped.

In all, 225 Loyalists were killed, 163 were wounded, 716 were taken prisoner. 28 Patriots were killed and 68 were wounded. Among the Patriot dead: Colonel James Williams of South Carolina.

BATTLE ENDS: PATRIOTS MARCH PRISONERS TO HILLSBOROUGH

After the battle, the victorious Patriots and the captured Loyalists had to camp together. Soon it became dark and the cries of the wounded were heard and often unheeded.

The next morning, the sun came out for the first time in days. Fearing that Cornwallis would soon be upon them, many of the Patriot militia left for their homes. A contingent of Patriots took the prisoners northward to the Continental Army jurisdiction in Hillsborough.

During the journey, a number of prisoners were brutally beaten and some prisoners were hacked with swords. A number of unjust murders took place — not the Patriots finest hour. The injustices continued a week later when a committee of Patriots appointed a jury to try some of the so-called "obnoxious" Loyalists. 36 Loyalists were found guilty of breaking open houses, burning houses and killing citizens. Nine were hanged.

CORNWALLIS IS SHAKEN BY THE NEWS; WITHDRAWS INTO SOUTH CAROLINA

Cornwallis was shaken when the news of Ferguson’s defeat reached his headquarters. He remained in Charlotte a few days before withdrawing back into South Carolina to the British post at Winnsboro. 

The British could not count on reinforcements from other South Carolina posts to help them — the news of victory at Kings Mountain had revived Patriot hopes. The victory triggered bonfires and street dancing in cities held by the Patriots. Soon, Patriot leaders such as Thomas Sumter, Elijah Clarke and Francis "The Swamp Fox" Marion stepped up their harassment of British troops. Patriot sympathizers increased their assaults on Tory neighbors.

COUNTDOWN TO YORKTOWN

Cornwallis was not inactive however. He sent Tarleton and a Major Wemyss in hot pursuit of Marion and Sumter. On November 9, Sumter was fully prepared when Wemyss attempted a surprise attack on his forces at Fish Dam Ford. Wemyss and 25 of his men were captured. Sumter then moved with 240 toward the British fort at Ninety Six. Tarleton stopped his pursuit of Marion and went to Fort Ninety Six. Deciding not to face Tarleton at that time, Sumter fled northward to Blackstock’s Plantation. On November 20, Tarleton attacked Sumter’s forces but to no avail. Tarleton lost 100 men while the Americans only lost three. Tarleton then rejoined Cornwallis.

Meanwhile, Clinton sent General Alexander Leslie to Virginia to prepare for battle there. Leslie was to be under the direct orders of Cornwallis. Cornwallis  ordered Leslie to come to South Carolina — he planned to resume his invasion of North Carolina as soon as Leslie arrived. Believing that Patriot leader Daniel Morgan planned to attack Fort Ninety Six, Cornwallis sent Tarleton to deal with the backwoodsman. Expecting Leslie to arrive in mid-January, Cornwallis planned to advance rapidly northward and cut off the two American armies (Nathaniel Greene’s men in the South from George Washington’s men in the North). He also hoped to stop the advance of Morgan’s forces should they survive the expected encounter with Tarleton.

Cornwallis’s hopes were dashed. Morgan’s men soundly defeated Tarleton’s Legion at the Battle of Cowpens on January 17. Morgan, who was ill with rheumatism and other ailments,  joined Greene’s army before returning to his home in Virginia. Greene saw that Cornwallis, who had left South Carolina, was getting further away from his train of supplies and provisions. Eventually, the two forces met in the Battle of Guilford Courthouse. Technically, the British won that battle but it was a Pyrrhic victory because British losses were high. One man in four was killed, wounded or captured.

Throughout the summer, skirmishes were fought across the Carolinas and Virginia. In September, the army of Cornwallis and the army of Washington met at Yorktown. After a 20-day battle, Cornwallis surrendered. The war officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris two years later.

Historians agree that the battle of Kings Mountain was the beginning of the end of British rule in its former colonies. In less than one hour of battle, the Overmountain Men not only captured the day but also punctured holes in the British strategy for keeping America under its control.

Portions written by Peggy Beach, Cleveland County Public Information Officer

SUMMARY

The Battle of King’s Mountain, was a crushing defeat to the British and loyalist troops, but more importantly, brought a glimmer of hope to the Patriot forces in the South.

The war had not been going well for the American forces in the south. Banastre Tarlton with 290 of his famed dragoon legion had unmerciously butchered 400 of Bufords’ troops at the Battle of Waxhaws Creek in 1780. Burfords’ troops had tried to surrendered, but Tarlton anxious to make a name for himself, personally cut the surrender banner down, then lead the final and fatal saber charge. This lead to his nickname "Bloody Tarlton", and his terms of surrender were known as "Tarlton’s quarter".

In addition to the capture of Savannah, and with the surrender of Charleston, S.C., things looked bleak for the Americans in the south.

Only through the "partisans" was any resistance kept alive. Partisans were bands of guerilla fighters, whose hit and run tactics, disrupted the British communication and supply lines in the south. The famous partisans were Andrew Pickens (the Wizard Owl), Thomas Sumter (the Carolina Gamecock), and Francis Marion (the Swamp Fox).

Americans troops were all too eager to repay the British for the massacre which occurred at Waxhaws.

On October the 7th, Maj. Patrick Ferguson brings his Loyalist troops to high ground which is heavily wooded, and he mistakenly believes that this area is invulnerable to attack.

Ferguson is also noted worthy as he has also developed the first breech loading rifle, but it is not adopted as it is condsidered too unreliable. Also Ferguson is in control of the second largest group of Loyalist troops (Tarlton being first).

Ferguson with his believe that he has secued an impregnable position, as Cornwallis to send reinforcements. With his additional troops, Ferguson will strike out and crush the frontier militia which as been harrasing the British. Ferguson however makes the mistake of not securing the slopes of the hill, figuring that the heavily wooded terrain will make any type of an attack, not feasible.

Feguson has miscalculated the resolve and the practicality of the backwoodsmen. Men from modern day South Carolina, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Kentucky, hearing about Ferguson and his Loyalists, start to make a treck to this area, and destroy him before he is allowed to destroy them.

The frontiersmen slowly creep up the backside of the mountain to within yards of the British and Loyalists. Americans attack the hill for oppisite sides, and Ferguson orders a bayonet charge. The loyalists are easy targets for the woodsmen and their rifles who use the thickly  wooded cover to their advantage. The remaining men are pushed back to their camp where they are surrounded by intense fire.

Ferguson wearing a red checked shirt is easily identified, and shot no less then 6 times. Many of the others ask for surrender, but hear the response "Talton’s quarter", and the shooting continues until most are cut down. Total causulties for the day are 157 Loyals killed 163 wounded, and 700 captured. American figures are 28 killed and 64 wounded.

This a major blow to the British in the south, and will lead Cornwallis to his next defeat, Cowpens.

ADDITIONAL READING –

PERSONAL ACCOUNTS

OVER MOUNTAIN MEN

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Dann, John C. ed. The Revolution Remembered: Eyewitness Accounts of the War for Independence. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1980.

Draper, Lyman C. Kings Mountain and its Heroes: History of the Battle of Kings Mountain, Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1967.

Dupuy, R. Ernest and Trevor N. Dupuy, eds. The Compact History of the Revolutionary War, New York: Hawthorn Books, Inc., 1963

Ferguson Rifle Campaign. Page on Web Site of South Doc Productions. www.southdoc.net/tnchron/ferguson1.htm.

Florette, Henri. Kings Mountain. Garden City: Doubleday, 1950.

Garrison, Webb. Great Stories of the American Revolution. Nashville, Tennessee: Rutledge Hill Press, 1990.

Gilmer, Bobby Moss. The Patriots of Kings Mountain. Blacksburg, S.C.: Scotia-Hubernia, 1990.

Guilford Courthouse National Military Park, Page on the N.C. State Library Web Site, www.statelibrary.dcr.state.nc.us

The Heritage of Cleveland County. Volume 1. The Cleveland County Historical Association. Winston-Salem, N.C.: Hunter Publishing Company, 1982.

Kelly, James C. and William C. Baker. The Sword of the Lord and Gideon: A Catalogue of Historical Objects Related to the Battle of Kings Mountain. Boone: Appalachian Consortium Press, 1980.

Kings Mountain National Military Park, Internet Web Site, www.nps.gov/kimo.

Kings Mountain National Military Park. Sights Magazine Web Site, www.sightsmag.com

Messick, Hank. Kings Mountain: The Epic of the Blue Ridge Mountain Men in the American Revolution. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1976.

Our Heritage: A History of Cleveland County. Shelby, N.C.: Shelby Star, 1976.

Pancake, John S. This Destructive War: The British Campaign in the Carolinas, 1780-1782. University of Alabama Press, 1985.

Resource and Activity Guide for Teachers. Published by the Kings Mountain National Military Park, 1995.

Scheer, George F. The Overmountain Men. Pamphlet. Available at Kings Mountain National Military Park.

Weathers, Lee B. The Living Past of Cleveland County: A History. Spartanburg, S.C.: The Reprint Company, 1956.

White, Katherine Keogh. The Kings Mountain Men: The Story of the Battle with Sketches of the American Soldiers Who Took Part. Baltimore: General Publishing Company, 1966.

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Martin Family History

This page is designed to aid in the search for the surnames of my family. If you are involved in a search for MARTIN, PARISH, JACKSON, CRANFORD, NORTON, or PHILLIPS, please use the menu system to find specific information.

These surnames all have southern origins. The following states are represented: Arkansas, Alabama, North Carolina, and Tennessee. They served in the military during every major conflict of this nation from the Revolutionary War to the Gulf Conflict (Desert Storm), including thirteen who fought for the Confederate States of America (CSA) during the Civil War . There has been a migration to the West, specifically Washington and California during the latter part of this century, but the vast majority still remain in the south. Please browse these pages, read the stories, view the photos, and enjoy yourself. I welcome you to our family and hope you find a link.




THE ORIGINS OF THE FAMILY NAMES of Paris, Parish, Parrish

 

From what we read, there are basically two distinct groups of families. The older lines come from ancestors who were from Paris, and made it to England where the letter "h" was added as part of old english. The newer lines are derived as someone who came from a church or civil parish. Also, it evolved in the 17th and 18th centuries from orpans who were raised by a church parish, hence they took the last name.

Origin of the name Parish

In 1997, Elaine Parrish provided this account of the Parish name origin to us: The most informed source I have spoken to is J. M. Parish in Canada. He recommends – among others – the books: 'The Parisii' by Harold Ramm (this covers the arrival in Yorkshire up to Medieval times) and 'The Conquest of Gaul' by Julius Caesar – written about 50 A.D. In short (what Joe maintains and what was confirmed by [and added to by] several other sources):

The Parisii were a Celtic clan that lived in a place called Paris (now Paris, France). The Roman Empire was out conquering everything everywhere.They went to battle with the Parisii, but the Romans were too great in number and won. The Parisii that could, fled to an isolated strip in what is now England and from there went to what is now Ireland.

Since Parisii was an odd name and since it was a custom of the time for a last name to be simply "of [placename]", and since some wanted to blend in , etc, the name Parisii began to change. Some kept Parisii; some changed it and it became "Paris" or "de Paris" (of Paris); As they moved into Ireland, the "h" was added; variations became O'Paris, O'Parish, and Parish. Then "The Church" came along and used "Parish" to denote areas, so the second "r" was added by some so as not to be associated with the Church.

The name changes happened over many generations and was prompted by a variety of reasons (including: a desire to fit in or not stand out as different; to gain favor with or avoid conflict with "the powers that be"; or just because people were not educated and it just happened – as in census takers and tax roll compilers here change spellings).

Joe said that one "r" Parish was more common in Canada and Down Under; while the two "r" Parrish was more common in the U.S.

The European Origin of the Parish Name

According to family histories in general the name of Parish evolved from two main distinct origins. In other words, there are at least two families branches, unrelated, namely:

Of French extraction or from Paris – evolved from "de Paris", (of Paris) from the city of Paris, as a Norman French name, originally "de Paris" which translates from French into English as "of Paris", and eventually became Parish, Parys, etc. One Englishman, Matthew Paris, the English chronicler of the early part of the thirteenth century, acquired his name from his study at the University of Paris. Paris sometimes added an h to his name to make it Parish or Parrish.

Of a locality or church parish – Parish or Parrish as a name taken from locality or even a church parish. A name local in origin, persons from this branch are not necessarily French in origin as the lines which derived from Paris above. Also in the 17th and 18th centuries, the surname was occasionally bestowed on foundlings brought up at the expense of the parish…… the young person who was an orphan of the church – in the days before welfare and state aid, an orphan with no surname may have picked up the last name of Parish as being "of the Parish"

A third, less common origin of the name comes from the rare medieval given name Paris, probably a form of Patrick, but associated with the name of the Trojan prince, Paris, which has been speculatively traced to an original Illyrian form Voltuparis or Assparis "Hawk".




Correll

Mary Ann Correll (127) was the daughter of John and Mary Correll. As early as February 5, 1778, John Correll (318) entered a claim for 350 acres of land on the waters of Dutch Buffalo Creek in what is now the China Grove section of Rowan County. Since there were a number of John Corrells it is difficult to be sure of where he was born, but probably he was one of five brothers who came from Berks County (Near Reading) Pennsylvania and all of them bought land near each other in Rowan County, N. C. in the 1790’s.

John and Mary Correll moved to nearby Iredell County late in 1793 or early in 1794. Their daughter, Mary Ann (127), was born in January of 1795.

The Rowan County Corrells were prominent in the organization of Mt. Zion German Reformed Church between China Grove and Landis in Rowan County. But the family of John Correll became tied up with Liberty Methodist Church in their community (a church seemingly situated on their land). As Mary Correll Keever’s children grew up, every one of them became members and usually they were among the leaders. Jacob Keever’s name does not appear on the rolls until just before he left with his son for Arkansas. During his wife Mary’s life he may have belonged to a German church of some kind. The Corrells continued in the area for some time, but as with many families, they eventually went to other parts of our country in search of the elusive "better life."

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North Carolina Martins

Ancestors of Hubert Munsey Martin 

Even though Hubert Martin left North Carolina as a child with his widowed mother, he continued to have contacts with the Martins who stayed in North Carolina, near Hiddenite, in what is now Alexander County, formerly Iredell County. His "Uncle Jule" and "Uncle Hoyle" visited him at least once in the 1930’s. The Martin family there was large, close-knit and friendly. In the last thirty years or so as travel in this country has become easier, many descendants of Robert Samuel C. Martin (115) have visited from their homes in Arkansas. The North Carolinians have made them welcome and many have continued to write letters and keep in contact with each other.

Martins have been influential in North Carolina’s history since before the Revolution. One of the early colonial governors was Joshua Martin, a wealthy man with large land grants. As far as I can determine, he was not related to us. However, in the 1980’s North Carolina had a governor named Martin, and some of the North Carolina branch of the family said that he was related to us in some way.

Hubert Martin’s father, Robert Samuel C. Martin (115), died of typhoid fever in 1881 when he was only 26 years old. Samuel’s father was George Washington Martin (118) (1825 – 1918), (probably known as "Wash") who lived in what is now Alexander County, but was formerly Iredell County.

The 1880 census for Alexander County, North Carolina shows "Sam" Martin, 22, his wife R.M.F. (Rebecca Melvina Florentine), 23 and "H" (our Hubert) 5/12 (5 months). In the adjoining household is his father, Washington Martin, 53 and wife "M" 46, sons 7, 12, 18 years old and a 25 year old female servant, R. Fox. It is noted that none in the household can write, but all can apparently read except one son and the servant. In Samuel’s family, both he and Melvina can apparently read and write.

I looked at census records to try to find out who G. Washington Martin’s parents were. The 1850 census and later ones show the name of "Head of Household" and under that list the names and ages of other people in the household, so I found a 23 year old George, occupation blacksmith, still living at home with his parents, William Martin (123) (farmer) and "Elener"(124), ages 66 and 67. Also at home was "Caroline, age 40". William was shown as having $200 in real estate.

Next I looked at the 1860 census and got confirmation that this was indeed the right "George." This one showed a G. W. Martin, 34, Blacksmith, $200 Real Property, $165 Personal, as Head of a Household. The census taker must have been tired that day and instead of writing names, he wrote everybody’s initials. Since our family records had the names of this family, I was able to match initials with the census records and they fit exactly. In addition to his wife, "M.M.", 30, there were four children including one "R.S.C.", our ancestor. Also listed in his household was "Carolina" (the only one spelled out) no doubt the "Caroline" from the 1850 census. I suppose she was an older sister of G. W.

I decided to go back in the census records to try to find out how long they had been in the area. The 1840 census was so hard to read I gave up on it and tried the 1830 census which had less information than the 1850 and later ones – no names except for "Head of Household," just the number of males and females in different age categories. I found William Martin as Head of Household and the listing of the ages of household members seemed to confirm that it was the same family as that described above in the 1850 census, so we believe they were there at least since 1830.

In the older census in North Carolina there were several Martins named William, Samuel, Robert, etc. in various counties but I could not determine which, if any, were "ours." It makes it harder to identify them when the names are commonly used because there are several with the same name. In the North Carolina Revolutionary War records there were Martins, including a William Martin. I rather suspect that our Martins were here before the Revolution, but we do not now have proof of that.

Here let me make a recommendation that people name their children unusual names. There were many William Martins in North Carolina. Now if people would name their children names like Bascome, Robena, Elmira or Laverle, one could identify them readily in census records. But what family would ever use such names????

Anyway, I did find one possible lead on the "Elener" who was William Martin’s wife on the 1850 census. On page 128 of a book called, Marriages of Mecklenburg County of North Carolina 1783 – 1868 is a listing as follows, "William Martin and Eleanor Booker, November 2, 1808, Philip McDay bondsman, Isaac Alexander witness." Mecklenburg county adjoins Iredell. The date of the marriage would seem about right since their "Caroline" was born about 1810, but since that is not really proof, I did not list "our" Eleanor’s maiden name – it’s just a possibility.

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Samuel Martin

Excerpt from Sketches of Western North Carolina, Cyrus L. Hunter, 1877

Captain Samuel Martin was a native of Ireland, and born in the year 1732. When a young man, he emigrated to America, and first settled in Pennsylvania. After remaining a short time in that State, he joined the great tide of emigration to the southern colonies. He first entered the service as a private in Captain Robert Alexander’s company, in June 1776, Colonel Graham’s Regiment, and marched to Fort McGaughey, in Rutherford county, and thence across the Blue Ridge Mountains against the Cherokee Indians, who were committing murders and depredations upon the frontier Settlements. In January 1777, he attached himself to the command of Captain William Chronicle, and marched to the relief of the post of Ninety-Six, in Abbeville county, S. C., and after this service he returned to North Carolina.

About the lst of November, 1779, his company was ordered to Charlotte, at that time and place of rendezvous of soldiers for the surrounding counties, and while there he received a special commission of captain, conferred on him by General Rutherford. With his special command be marched with other forces from Charlotte by way of Camden, to the relief of Charleston, and fell in with Col. Hampton, at the Governor’s crate, near that city. Finding that place completely invested by the British army, he remained but a short time, and returned to North Carolina with Colonel Graham’s regiment, about the 1st of June, 1780.

Being, informed on the night of his arrival at home that the Tories were embodied in strong force at Ramsour’s Mill, near the present town of Lincolnton, he immediately raised a small company and joined General Davidson’s battalion, General Rutherford commanding, encamped at Colonel Dickson’s plantation, three miles northwest of Tuckaseege ford. General Rutherford broke up his encampment at that place, early on the morning of the 20th of June, 1780, then sixteen miles from Ramsour’s Mill, and marched with his forces, expecting to unite with Colonel Locke in making a joint attack upon the Tories, but failed to reach the scene of conflict until two hours after the battle. The Tories bad been signally defeated and routed by Colonel Locke and his brave associates, and about fifty made prisoners, among the number a brother of Colonel Moore, the commander of the Tory forces.

Immediately after this battle he received orders from Colonels Johnston and Dickson to proceed with his company to Colonel Moore’s residence, six or seven miles west of the present town of Lincolnton, and arrest that Tory leader, but he bad fled with about thirty of his follower’s to Camden, S.C., where Cornwall’s was then encamped. Soon after this service Captain Martin was ordered to proceed with his company to Rugeley’s Mill, in Kershaw county, S.C. Here Colonel Rugeley, the Tory commander, had assembled a considerable force, and fortified his log barn and dwelling house. Colonel Washington, by order of General Morgan, had pursued him with his cavalry, but having no artillery, he resorted to, an ingenious stratagem to capture the post without sacrificing his own men. Accordingly he mounted a pine log fashioned as a cannon, elevated on its own limbs, and placed it in position to command the houses in which the Tories were lodged. Colonel Washington then made a formal demand for immediate surrender. Colonel Rugeley fearing the destructive consequences of the formidable cannon bearing upon his command in the log barn and dwelling house, after a stipulation as to terms, promptly surrendered his whole force, consisting of one hundred and twelve men, without a gun being fired on either side. It was upon the reception of the news of this surrender that Cornwallis wrote to Tarleton, "Rugeley will not be made a Brigadier."

After this successful stratagem, seldom equaled during the war, Captain Martin was ordered to march with his company in pursuit of Colonel Cunningham, (commonly called "Bloody Bill Cunningham") a Tory leader, encamped on Fishing creek, but he fled so rapidly be could not overtake him. During the latter part of August and the whole of September, Captain Martin was rarely at home, and then not remaining for more than two days at a time. About the last week of September be marched with his company by a circuitous route, under Colonel Graham, to the Cowpens. There, he united with Colonels. Campbell, Shelby, Sevier, Cleaveland and other officers and marched with them to King’s Mountain. In this battle Captain Martin acted a conspicuous part, was in the thickest of the fight, and lost six of his company. After this battle he continued on active scouting duties wherever his services were needed.

When Cornwallis marched through Lincoln county in pursuit of General Morgan, encumbered with upwards of five hundred prisoners, captured at the Cowpens, he was ordered to harass his advance as much as possible. A short time after Cornwallis crossed the Catawba at Cowan’s Ford, he marched as far as Salisbury, when he was ordered by Colonel Dickson to convey some prisoners to Charlotte. Having performed this Service, be proceeded to Guilford Court house, but did not reach that place until after the battle. He then returned home, and was soon after discharged.

In October 1833, Captain Martin, when one hundred and one years old, was granted a pension by the general government. He was a worthy and consistent member of the Associate Reformed Church, and died on the 26th of November, 1836, aged one hundred and four years! He married in Ireland, Margaret McCurdy, who also attained an extreme old age, and both are buried in Goshen grave yard, in Gaston county.

Except from King’s Mountain and It’s Heroes, Lyman C Draper, LL.D, 1881

Samuel Martin was born in Ireland in 1732, where he married Margaret McCurdy, and migrated to Pennsylvania. While there, he served in the old French and Indian war, removing to North Carolina, he served on the Snow campaign in 1775; on the frontiers in 1776; and went to the relief of Charleston in 1779-80. In June, 1780, he was made Captain, serving under Rutherford; and was at the capture of Rugeley ‘s Tories, and at King’s Mountain. In 1781, he opposed Cornwallis at Cowan’s Ford, and afterwards served awhile under General Pickens; and then commanded a company under Colonel William Polk at Eutaw Springs. Surviving his companion, he died in Gaston County, November twenty-sixth, 1836, at the great age of one hundred and four years.

1732-1836

Most of my information comes from the Revolutionary War Pension files of Samuel Martin. Additionally, there are a couple of books on North Carolina History that contain references to him. These include the Kings Mountain Men and History of Tryon County.

The following information is from his application to increase the amount of his Revolutionary War Pension, dated 1833.

Declaration of Samuel Martin dated May 13, 1833, aged listed as 99 years.

During the Siege of Charleston, went with my wagon and team under command of Col. Hambright of Tryon, (now Lincoln) County and after the surrender of Charleston, General Rutherford gave him commission of Captain.

Marched thence to Camden – where we lay some time – thence to Tryon Co, NC in the fall of same year (1780), was in Battle of King’s Mountain. This service was 6 months as Capt.

After this received commission as Capt from Governor Martin of NC, and was kept employed during remainder of the war ranging the County of Tryon for the suppression of tories. Was on my way with my company to the Battle of Ramseurs Mill in Tryon, but owing to accident the attack was made before we got there. I was then with General Rutherford, reached there after the defeat of the tories. I took many tories, among them a brother of the celebrated tory Col Moore.

Marched in pursuit of Cornwallis, to harrass his trains in crossing the Catawba River. Was under the command of Col Wm Graham of Tryon County. Col Campbell commanded at King’s Mountain, Col Graham having left before the action, the command of the regiment devolving on Joseph Dixon. Graham’s commission was taken away on account of his conduct on that occasion.

Signed Samuel Martin…

Statement by Andy Barry, 13 May 1833

I volunteered as private in declarant’s company just before the Battle of Ramseurs Mill in Tryon County (now Lincoln) and continued subject to his command until after the Battle of King’s Mountain in which I was under his command. He commanded about 20 men, 6 of whom fell. He was recognized as Capt until the end of the war. I have known him from boyhood, and have all the time lived in his neighborhood.

Statement by Samuel Caldwell, 13 May 1833

Was with Capt Martin at Battle of King’s Mountain and many other places in Lincoln County. He was recognized as Capt from that time to the close of war. Have lived as neighbor to him ever since I was a small boy.

Amended Declaration – October 7, 1833 – Samuel Martin

Was first drafted and marched under Capt Robert Alexander in June 1777 or 1778, as private, served 2 months to McCaugh’s Fort after Indians in the mountains.

Volunteered in the January afterwards under Capt Cronicle and marched to near 96, called the Snowy Campaign for 1 month as a private.

Was commissioned as Capt soon after commencement of War by Governor Martin, the seal of which commission has been forwarded to the war department, but did not serve as Capt for the first two tours.

About 1st of Nov 1779, set out from Charlotte, NC as Capt under Col Hambright, under a special duplicate commission given him by General Rutherford, having command of a special company. Marched by Camden, fell in with Col Hampton at the Governor’s gate, near Charleston, SC and remained about there until the surrender of Charleston. Then marched by the cross roads in York or Lancaster Dist, SC at times in company with Col Graham and arrived home in Tryon about the 1st of June 1780, having served this time 7 months.

Immediately after, collected a small company and marched to Ramseur’s Mill, out about a month.

Immediately after, under orders of Col Johnson and Dickson went with his cavalry in pursuit of the tory John Moore and returned about middle of July, out 1 month.

Then marched his company to Ringby’s Mill in Kershaw Dist, SC where they fell in with Col Washington, and they mounted a pirre cannon and took the tory picket, out about 1/2 month.

Then marched to Fishing Creek in pursuit of the tory officer Cunningham, out about 10 days in pursuit, the middle of August. During the latter part of August and to Ocotber, at the time of the battle of Camden (Gates defeat) and the march of Cornwallis towards Charlotte was out constantly, not being at home two days at a time. Late in September marching a circuitious route to Gilberttown, under Col Graham, where fell in with Col Campbell and Shelby, and marched to Battle of King’s Mountain where I commanded 20 men, 4 of whom were killed on the ground and 2 died shortly after.

Lord Cornwallis was then in Charlotte and I was scouting in various parts of Tryon and Mecklenberg counties. Cornwallis continued in the adjacent counties and border of SC until the Battle of Cowpens, Jan 17, 1781 and there wre many tories and soldiers all about, and I continued until we went in pursuit of Cornwallis on his way to Guilford in the winter of 1781. From Salisbury I was ordered to guard some prisoners back to Charlotte and did not overtake the main army until after the battle was fought in March. Returned to Tryon County on about 1st of April, making a tour of 7 1/2 months.

Service in all – 19 months and 25 days. I am too old and infirm to give a more particular detail.

Note: This from a man approximately 101 years old, providing details over 50 years old. I only wish my memory was that good.

Capt Samuel Caldwell – October 24th, 1833

Was informed and believes Samuel Martin acted as Capt of militia at siege of Charleston. Deponent marched to Gilberttown (now Rutherford) where he found Colonels Shelby and Campbell. Capt Martin was there and marched to King’s Mountain and there commanded a company. In consequence of "Lord Wallace" army being in the neighborhood the militia was constantly out. Deponent was frequently with Capt Martin frequently on other tours and believes he served his country as he stated. Deponent has known him ever since.

Cases cited:

Wm Young of Adair County, Ky about 1832, Pension No 7350

Served from Rowan County, separated from Tryon by a narrow part of Iredell.

After leaving the Battle of Ramseur’s Mill, 3rd of May 1780, enlisted for 10 months under Capt Samuel Martin, commanded by Col Wm Polk, in the line of General Sumter, to Couganee Fort, and there put under Capt "Snipes". Pensioned for 2 years service, on allegations of 26 months service of a similar kind. Declaration made August 10, 1832.

Wm Young of Henry County, Tenn about 1832, Pension No 19122

Declaration made September 7, 1832.

In 1781 marched under Capt Davidson, who became supernummary, and we were then put under command of Capt Martin who was commanded by Col Polk under General Sumter and were employed as a party of horseman, reconnoitering the British near 96 and give information to General Sumter. Were defeated at Juniper Springs and reassembled on the Couganee near Friday’s fort.

Wheeler’s Hitory of North Carolina for Lincoln County (formed from Tryon)

Battle of Ramseur’s Mill fought June 20th, 1780. The militia assembled on the 12th under General Rutherford. The cavalry, 65 in all, were equipped as Dragoons under Major Davy and formed in 2 troops under Capt Simmons and Martin. Incidents of detail until after the battle, same as described by Martin. The cavalry pursued the tories after the battle.

Crossing the Catawba Feburary 1, 1781. General Davidson of NC killed by a tory and NC militia put under command of General Pickens of SC pursued the British north through NC. Col Graham’s men’s time being out, they returned and crossed the Yadkin near 14th. The cavalry not specifically mentioned.

Affidavits provided in conjunction to the Revolutionary War Pension application of Samuel Martin.

Samuel Martin was born in Ireland in 1732, came to Pennsylvannia, date not shown, thence to Tryon County, North Carolina.

While a resident of Tryon (later Lincoln) County, North Carolina, Samuel Martin enlisted in June 1777, served two months as a Private in Captain Robert Alexande’s North Carolina Company and went to McCongham Fort against the Indians; he enlisted the following January and served one month as private in Captain Cromisle’s North Carolina Company; he was commissioned Captain and served from November 1, 1779, seven months in Colonel Hambright’s North Carolina Reggiment, during which period he was in the battle of Biggin’s Church and in the seige and surrender of Charleston; immediately following, he served two months and 10 days against the Tories in Tryon County; he srved from August, 1780, seven and one-half months under Colonels Graham and Shelby and was in the battle of King’s Mountain; he served from April 17, 1781, ten months as captain in Colonel William Polk’s South Carolina Regiment and was inn the battle of Rutaw Springss. It was stated that Samuel Martin served also through Braddock’s War.

Samuel Martin was allowed pension on his applicatiion executed May 13, 18333, at which time he resided in Lincoln County, North Carolina, where he had lived ever since the Revolutionary War.

Samuel Martin died November 26, 1836, in Lincolnn (that part later called Gaston) County, North Carolina, at the home of his son, George Martin, and wife, Martha. In 1854, George Martin was living in Dallas, Gaston County, North Carolina, aged more than 70 years, and was then the soldier’s only surviving child. His wife, Martha, was aged more than 69 in 1857 and still a resident of Gaston County, North Carolina. The other children who survived their father, Captain Samuel Martin, were William Martin, Jane Hanna, Margaret Kerr, Thomas and Joseph Martin. The name of Samuel Martin’s wife is not given. In November 1854 it was stated that Margaret Kerr, Thomas Martin and Joseph Martin had died within the last year.

In 1854, one James M. Hanna, resident of Gaston County, North Carolina stated that he had known the family of Captain Samuel Martin for 30 years and was present at his death which he recorded in the family bible. One W. D. Hanna was in Gaston County in 1854, their relationship to the family is not shown.

Jane Martin, granddaughter of Captain Samuel Martin, was in Lincoln County, North Carolina, in 1833.

William M. Kerr, grandson of Captain Samuel Martin, was living in Dallas, Gaston County, North Carolina, in 1856, and William Martin another grandson of said captain, was born and reared in Mecklenberg County, North Carolina, and in 1855, had been an itinerant Methodist Epsicopal minister about 28 years. In 1856, he was in Spartenburg District, South Carolina.

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One John Taylor was a relative of Captain Samuel Martin and their births were only one month apart; degree of relationship no shown.

Above taken from a letter to Mrs Roy Hill, Asheveille, North Carolina from the National Archives, reference Samuel Martin S.9003, dated September 9, 1936.




Nortons and McKnights

 

The first listing of the Nortons I could find in the North Carolina census was Nicholas Norton (139) in 1800. This would have been Nicholas, Sr. who was born in 1770 and lived in what was then Rowan County. As more counties were formed, they were shown in census records in Iredell, then Alexander Counties. They didn’t necessarily move, the larger counties were split into smaller ones.

By 1850 the census records show more information than previously when they only named the head of the household. The 1850 census shows household #209 consists of Nicholas Norton, Sr., an 80 year old farmer with $700 worth of property, born in Maryland. With him lived Sarah, 72 and Norman, 40 a doctor worth $400.

In another household Nicholas Norton Jr.(137), a 37 year old blacksmith is shown, worth $200, along with his 34 year old wife, Lucy. (Lucy Adilla Ellis (138) Children are named Sarah, 14, William 10, Louisa 7, Sidney 3 and (Nerusha?) 6/12.

In 1860 the two Nicholas Norton families are still shown in different households even though the senior one is 90 and his wife is 82. It is noted that he is deaf, has $1,000 in real estate and $10,800 in personal property.

Nicholas Jr. (now with property worth $300) is shown to have seven children identified by their initials only, but the sixth one is identified as "M F", six years old, and is our ancestor Melvina Florentine (116).

In 1870 the senior Nortons are gone and Nicholas Jr. is now worth $1300! Hulet, Melvina and John are shown as "attending school" and the other children have gone.

I thought it quite remarkable that in 1860 with not much in the way of medical care available, the senior Nortons were able to maintain themselves in their own household. One might expect that their son might enjoy the benefits of those good genes and also live a long and independent life, but the 1880 census has bad news. N.S. Norton, son of Nicholas Jr. is

shown as a "preacher" living with his wife, four children from 1 to 7 years old and his parents, Nicholas and Lucy, 65 and 63 years old. Nicholas has a notation that he is blind, dyspeptic and disabled.

Can you picture that household with 4 little children and the "elderly" parents in that condition? It seems a little odd that they mentioned it on the census form, but beside the one year old, Mary Edith, is the notation, "teething!" Maybe the teething with its accompanying crying, was just the last straw! Nicholas Jr. lived twelve more years until October 1892, whether it was always with this son, I don’t know. Well, at least the baby was through teething before then.

Rebecca Melvina Florentine Norton Martin Smith (116) was born in North Carolina, married Robert Samuel C. (Sam) Martin (115) and they had two sons, Hubert and Gatis, before her husband died of typhoid fever in 1881.

In those days single women did not live alone with their children, so her brother, Nicholas Norman Sidney Sylvester Norton, the straight-laced Methodist preacher referred to above, built her a "little house" near his own house. I wonder if his parents were still with them too but possibly they were living with other children. Anyway "Preacher" Norton did not look kindly on male suitors for Melvina, so when his two small children, Mary Edith and her brother, came running in reporting, "Gas Smith is going to the little house!" they expected him to be grateful that they notified him. Instead they were spanked – not for tattling but because they didn’t call him "Mr. Smith!" This story was told to me by Ava (Sutherland) Baker, daughter of Mary Edith. Ava was able to give me considerable information about the Norton family and their ancestors. She said that neither her grandfather, the straight-laced Norton, nor other relatives approved of "Gas" (Gaston) Smith, but she married him anyway.

Ava says that in those days many people from North Carolina looked on Arkansas as a vastly improved place to live. The soil in North Carolina was a reddish color whereas in Arkansas it was brown and looked richer, though often rocky. The saying among Arkansas "boosters" was "Arkansas soil would fertilize North Carolina!" Not surprisingly some came to Arkansas and found that an exaggeration and returned to North Carolina.

Melvina and her husband, with their children and Hubert and Gatis made the move to Arkansas probably around 1890. They moved down to an area near Wilburn where she became ill with malaria. She died in 1899 and was buried in the Oak Grove Cemetery at Wolf Bayou.

The will of George McKnight (141) was dated July 11, 1811 and "proved" February 1814. He left everything to his wife, Mary, during her lifetime; after her death the estate was to be divided equally between daughters, Elizabeth Ellis and Sally Norton. Executors were Ethelred Ellis (older brother of Lucy) and Nicholas Norton (George’s son-in-law.)

Sarah McKnight Norton (140) died at the home of her son, Nicholas Norton, Jr. on February 2, 1867. She was at that time the oldest Methodist in the Alexander circuit. She was a member of the M.E. church for 75 years, had heard renowned evangelists speak including Dr. Coke and Bishop Asbury.


Rev. N.S. "Sid" Norton, about 1900.

NORTON

Nicholas Sidney Norton moved to this area in December 1889. He had relatives here and no doubt had information about the place before moving. He lived in several locations before finally settling at Crossroads (now Drasco) where he had a store. He spent the last years of his life at this place. "Uncle Sid" as he was called, was a Methodist preacher. Many descendants still live in this vicinity. The census show Nortons in the area much earlier, but we have not been able to make any connection with this family, nor find what became of the earlier settlers.

 

Nicholas Sidney Norton and wife Amanda McClelland. Standing behind is his brother Shelton and wife Dea, at Sidney’s home in Drasco, about 1931.

Rev. N.S. Norton (1847-1932)
Amanda McClelland Norton (1849-1939)

Rev. N.S. "Uncle Sid" and Amanda Norton at their store in Drasco about 1928. Note hand operated gasoline pump, thought to be the first at Drasco. Uncle Sid is said to be the first post master but the records shows his daughter Mertie in that capacity. She served from 1917 to 1935. The Norton family came here from North Carolina as did many others

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Maud Uland Cranford Martin


JANUARY 10, 1882 – JANUARY 9, 1966

Maud was born January 10, 1882 on a farm near Five Mile in Stone County, Arkansas. She later moved, with her parents, to Wolf Bayou, Arkansas. She was the fifth child of Leonard Travis Cranford and Josephine Phillips Cranford. Their family consisted of Thomas, Ella (Pritchard), Mollie (Beasley), Dora (Sharp), Maud, Leonard, Oscar, Ada and Murrell (Inman).

I don’t know any stories about Maud’s childhood. Her daughter, Lorene, says she didn’t tell stories about when she was young, and we didn’t think to ask her.

Like most other children in that time and place she began very young to work. Maud learned to do all the jobs of a farm — cleaning, cooking, gardening, canning, washing, ironing, sewing, quilting. I assume that she also had some time to play. She had many brothers and sisters who remained close all their lives so I suppose those good relationships began in childhood. Dora was the girl nearest to her in age, and I remember that they continued to communicate and visit each other as long as Dora lived. When Maud began her own family, she and/or Hubert made a corncob doll for their first little girl to play with. Did she do that because her parents had done the same for her? Clelan says he remembers his mother saying that sometimes when she was a child American Indians would come to the door asking to work for food–doesn’t that make it seem long ago?

Maud went to school from the time she was 6 or 7 years old in a one-room school. One day at that school when she was around 10 years old a new student came to school.

Maud’s uncle and aunt (Fayette and Nanette Ward – Nanette was Maud’s mother’s sister) and had taken in Hubert Martin to live and work with them and they let him go to school. He was a couple of years older than Maud and had never been to school before. However, she remembered that he was so eager to learn that he soon passed up all the younger children. He must have made quite an impression because they were married two days after her 17th birthday!

Hubert may have had a premonition of things to come, because soon after they were married he sawed off a section of a nice round hickory limb, sawed, shaped and smoothed it with hand tools to make a very durable rolling pin. Did he know how many biscuits would need to be made? The rolling pin (which I have now) was one thing my mother requested to remind her of her mother and the life she led. I believe that Hoyle and Ethelene have the enormous wooden bowl she used to mix those biscuits.

After their marriage Hubert and Maud moved into a house that would today be considered uninhabitable. The only reference she made to me about that house was when she, with her son, Claren and his wife Lucy, stopped to visit Tom and me in Dallas in 1954. We had just moved into our first house which by today’s standards would be modest – 1 bathroom, single garage, but nice and new with tiled bath and kitchen, hardwood floors. She looked around and said, "Law me, if you could see our first house!"

When I told my mother what she said, Mother said she thought it had a dirt floor. They lived there while Hubert continued to work for Mr. Ward. Their second house was a log house, a portion of which still exists. A history of the house and a picture of it are on pages 50 and 51 of Louie Clark’s book, Wolf Bayou, Arkansas and Healing Springs Township. The house was built by Jacob Artimus Kever, great grandfather of Hubert Martin. Maud and Hubert’s first child, Elva, was born there March 2, 1900. At least by the time she was crawling, they lived in the house with a floor, but the floor was made of wood that was so rough and splintery that it was a hazardous place for a crawling baby. Clee and Clyde were also born in this house, January 21, 1902 and August 31, 1903.

About 1905 Hubert became an entrepreneur. He acquired a grist mill and some land that had previously been owned by "Mat" Clark and his son "Rafe" Clark. They lived in a little log house about a mile or so down the road toward Big Creek. This house may or may not have been an improvement over the house at Wolf Bayou as far as the quality of the housing was concerned, but Hubert now had the opportunity to make something of his business, and that’s where he concentrated his efforts.

Maud’s role was to take care of the growing family – a new member arriving regularly about every two years. There were probably very few months when she was not pregnant or nursing a new baby. She made most of their clothes, cooked, cleaned, washed clothes, planted, hoed, harvested the garden, canned or otherwise preserved the food, made the quilts, kept the fire going, to say nothing of disciplining and teaching the children.

Her children say that she was strict, but even-tempered and "kept her cool" as compared to Hubert but she would "switch their legs" as needed to teach them to behave and obey her.

Cloyse was born June 7, 1905 and Myrtle made her appearance on February 19, 1907.

Maud’s health started to deteriorate to the degree that they were afraid for her life. In 1909 they were worried about her enough to send her to Pearson to live with her older sister, Molly Beasley, and Molly’s husband who was a doctor. She stayed there several months while her sister nursed and cared for her. The two younger children, Cloyse and Myrtle, were sent to stay with Maud’s parents for the better part of a year – even for some time after Maud returned home. It must have been very difficult for her to be separated from her family like that. She must have worried about all of them, but they didn’t have much of a choice.

While she was gone, nine year old Elva did basic housekeeping for her father, two younger brothers, and even cooked for the mill hands who had their noon meal at the house. She said "Aunt Mary" (wife of Gatis Martin, Hubert’s brother) who lived on the adjoining farm, helped her as she could, but she had her own family to care for. Seven year old Clee probably began then to help at the mill. Somehow they made it through this difficult time and Maud’s health was finally restored. As far as I know there was no real diagnosis of what was wrong with her, so I assume it was just that she got completely "worn out" from the constant child-bearing and the work load.

With five children, the little old makeshift house was becoming seriously overcrowded. Hubert didn’t want to take the time from his business to build another house, so he got his brother and neighbor, Gatis, to build one for them on the Banner – Wolf Bayou road before Lorene was born in 1911. When it was first built it had a large fireplace room big enough for a bed or two, a large kitchen with room for a big table for eating (a bed could be fitted in there too), a bedroom downstairs big enough for two beds. From this bedroom there was a stairway up to a large finished room upstairs.

By the time I came along there was a drilled well by the back door, but I’m not sure when that was put there. However, even with the well there, they carried water from the spring which was maybe 50 yards down a slope on the east side of the house. I don’t know if the problem with the well was the quality or quantity of the water. The washing was done down by the spring too, so the clothes had to be carried down there and back. A fire had to be built under the big iron wash pot so the clothes could be boiled as somebody punched them with a wooden stick. They were, of course, cleaned with "lie soap" which Maud had made herself, and rubbed by hand on a rub board before they were rinsed and hung on the line to dry. These were of course not "wash and wear" synthetics, but rough heavy fabrics like denim that had to be ironed with an iron that was heated on a wood-burning cookstove (even in summer.)

The clothes were dirty to a degree that we seldom see these days, from working hard at back-breaking labor with lumber and machinery. Clyde says she washed just once a week, on Thursdays. Lorene pointed out that it wasn’t necessary to wash more often, as they typically had only one change of clothes and they were expected to wear it a week between changes!

Baths were often weekly affairs, and this probably made them susceptible to getting "the itch" from other kids at school. Once five of the little boys had this very uncomfortable disease, so Maud gave them a "poke root" bath. She dug up some poke salet plants, boiled the roots and bathed the little boys in it. They never had "the itch" again. I’m not sure whether that special bath cured it for all time or if it stung so bad they started keeping themselves cleaner so they wouldn’t have to take that "cure" again!

The spring served a purpose other than providing water – that of a cooler. Hubert poured concrete around the spring to help keep it clean so debris wouldn’t accumulate in it. A separate milk cooling area was constructed to provide a nice level place to set milk containers where the overflow from the spring would constantly surround them with cool water. In those days of no refrigeration, that was very nice to have, but it did mean that you had to carry the milk down to the spring after you did the milking and strained it, then go get it and carry it back up to the house every time you needed milk.

Ingenuity provided other improvements to their living arrangements. Maud spent a lot of time and effort putting up fruit, vegetables and even meat in half gallon glass canning jars. In the winter, it was quite possible to have things freeze in an unheated room, and those glass jars needed to be protected. Uncle Gatis built a pantry for Maud in a corner of her kitchen with a door and sawdust-filled walls for insulation.

Hubert probably plowed up the garden for Maud in the spring, or had it done, and he may have helped her in some other ways as well, but household things were mostly her job. He needed to spend his time on the mill, but he probably enjoyed it more too. In their, probably unspoken, "division of labor" he was supposed to keep the fence up around the garden to prevent "open range" animals from getting into the garden and damaging or destroying it. He often neglected to keep it in good repair.

Time after time the neighbors’ pigs would get into the garden and she would have to run out and chase them away. One time she must have been particularly frustrated when the pigs appeared again. This time she determined to teach them a lesson they wouldn’t forget. She scooped up a shovel full of hot coals from the fireplace, ran out to the pigs where they were trying to escape her wrath by going to the barn. She threw the hot coals at them! She would probably have felt great about all this except for one problem – it caught the barn on fire and burned it down! She was very fearful of Hubert’s anger, but I’m glad to report that nobody remembers much of a reaction on his part.

Maud had two babies that were either born dead or lived only a few hours. There is some question about when they were born, but possibly 1913 and 1914. Their little graves can still be found near where the old house stood, marked with hand made bricks. Lorene and Myrtle went over to the old "Clark houseplace" near where Hubert’s gristmill was first located, found the bricks and brought them over. Samuel Cleston Martin was born May 31, 1915 and Claren Otis was born December 10, 1917.

Now there were eight children at home. Hubert’s business was going well, so he added a "front room" to the house. It was separated from the original part of the house by a wide covered porch, like a "breezeway", and had a wide porch all around it. It was a large room with a door in each end and two windows on the front, a nice and much needed addition.

As this room was being added, two special events were being planned. Maud was expecting her ninth child, and their first child, Elva, was planning to be married. Elva and Earl Stuart were married in that new front room October 25, 1919. Mildred Ward Reed (Earl’s niece, daughter of Rosa Stuart Ward) remembers that Maud was a little sad to be losing her first child to marriage, but said that it was a good thing she was marrying, that Elva hadn’t done anything while Earl was in France in World War I but "sit around and cry." Well, she undoubtedly didn’t mean it literally. Elva was in some ways like having another mother in the house. Cleston remembers that Elva dressed him for the wedding in a "little white suit." I’m sure that Elva’s presence and the work she did to help was missed.

Clelan Eugene was born December 6, 1919. Raymond Clinton was born May 2, 1922 (called Raymond, the first boy not to be called by a "Cl" name.) Their last child, Thomas Hoyle (what, no "Cl" name!?) was born December 27, 1924. Clee married Opal Collard January 24, 1921 and Cloyse married Alta Bell January 1, 1924, so by the end of 1924 there were seven children still at home. Clyde was not married yet, but left to go to St. Louis to work.

Myrtle and Lorene were old enough to be helpful, but there was a tremendous amount of work to make a home for the family, including five little boys from newborn to nine years old. As the boys got older they too did hard physical labor at the mill and on the farm. Can you imagine the food that had to be produced and prepared?

Maud could do everything fast. When I was a child there were still five boys at home, all working with their father at the mill as well as some garden and farm work. They were all big people by then but she still did almost all the cooking, cleaning, laundry for them all. Of course, since she didn’t have any daughters at home by then, Hubert might sometimes assign a son to "help your mother" if her need was great.

I remember one day watching her patch overalls. It was amazing to see how fast she made that needle move to sew on that patch. When she died, my mother got for me a thimble of hers which I treasure. It has several holes punched all the way through by pushing those needles through heavy fabric so many times.

She had a foot pedal operated sewing machine but patching was done by hand. How it looked was not so important, but sewing it to stay on was and getting it finished was important because dinner had to be cooked.

By this time the men’s clothes were purchased ready made, because by then they were much more affluent, but in the earlier days she also made a good part of their clothes. My mother said that Maud was not really a good seamstress in that the emphasis was on making it sturdy and getting it finished, not on the decorative aspects.

Probably Maud’s cooking followed her general pattern of work, "Don’t get fancy, just do the basics very well." As time went by she may have enjoyed branching out more as far as cooking. I remember a strawberry shortcake that was the best! It was several thin layers of cake with strawberries between each layer and rich cream on top. Marilyn Martin Hamlet says her coconut cake was the best she had ever eaten.

Most of the family remember that Maud’s cooking was great! My brother, Charles, remembers her biscuits. I remember smelling that pot of beans simmering in an iron pot on the fireplace. As was true in most homes in that area in those days, the food was basically what was raised in their gardens and from farm animals.

When I think of how she started each day, she probably did more work by 9:00 a.m. than most of us do all day. She would get up and make breakfast which would consist of a pan full of biscuits – the pan Hoyle says was about 18" x 24" and the biscuits were about two inches thick. To go along with this would be fried salt pork, eggs, gravy, sorghum molasses and butter, homemade jams and jellies. The men would often be preparing to go far away to the mill site. (The sawmill was somewhat portable, so could be moved to where the timber was.) She would pack food for their noon meal which would include a cake freshly baked every day. Many times this would probably be a molasses cake to cut down on the sugar they had to buy.

When Hubert and the other "mill hands" were working close enough to come home for the noon meal it was called dinner and usually consisted of dried beans cooked with salt pork seasoning, potatoes and another vegetable or two cooked fresh in the summer or home-canned when they were out of season, and of course big pans of cornbread. Clyde says her corn bread had a thick crisp crust that was so good the boys would almost fight over it. Dessert, was usually molasses cake or cookies, or a cobbler made from home-grown fruit. Often the evening meal consisted of leftovers from the noon meal, but it was often a challenge to cook enough at noon so there would be enough left over for supper.

My brother, Douglas, remembered the daily admonition of his grandmother as he and his uncles, Clelan and Raymond, came in after school, "Now stay out of the supper bread!" The bread was stored in the "warming oven" in the upper part of the cook stove. If the boys got into the "supper bread" she would have to build a fire and cook more bread. A lot of time could be saved if she didn’t have to cook another meal from scratch.

Since purchased bread was a rarity and yeast bread (light bread) almost as rare since the yeast had to be refrigerated, it was valued even more than homemade biscuits and corn bread. Clelan tells a story on himself to illustrate this. Most lunches sent from home for any of the families were made up of sandwiches of homemade biscuits and eggs or jam. The Brackett family ran the store and the Brackett boys sometimes brought sandwiches made from light bread. Clelan was very envious of this. He dreamed of a day when he too could have light bread sandwiches. Clelan one night was invited to spend the night with the Brackett boys and he went secretly hopeful that they would have light bread. The next morning Mrs. Brackett made biscuits for breakfast but found when she started to make lunches that she was out of light bread. She asked the boys if they would rather run to the store for a loaf of light bread or would they just as soon take biscuits. Each boy voiced his opinion and Clelan said, "I’d rather have light bread, that’s what I come for!"

An illustration of the fact that the niceties of food presentation took a back seat to substance can be seen in a lunch box story. Cleston, Claren, Clelan and Raymond were attending school. Their mother would send the lunch to school in a syrup bucket and the older boy was responsible to get it to school. At lunch time all 4 boys would gather around the bucket to see what was for lunch. One day she sent cornbread and milk in the bucket–not separate in four jars, just a bucket of milk with cornbread floating in it. They loved cornbread and milk. There they stood all ready to eat, but they did not have spoons. Soon Cleston said, "I bet there’s spoons in the bucket." He reached into the milk with his grubby little school boy fist and pulled out four spoons. They all happily ate their cornbread and milk.

Maud must have been very well organized or she wouldn’t have been able to accomplish so much. The way I remember their house, it was always clean and neat. In the afternoon she would be sitting, on the porch in the summer or the fireplace room in the winter, maybe patching or darning something, but serene and unstressed.

In spite of all the family obligations, Maud found time to help neighbors when they were in need. Clelan remembers that she was especially sympathetic to women who were left widowed with children to raise. "Aunt" Velda was married to my father’s (Earl Stuart) brother Lawrence (Lon) Stuart until he died in 1918. Letha Stuart Crow remembers that her mother was teaching the "Martin School" soon after her father died and they would sometimes spend the night with the Martins if the weather was too bad. Once the weather was bad but Aunt Velda needed to go home anyway and she left Letha (maybe four years old) to stay with the Martins. Letha remembers that she really admired Cloyse who was a few years older. When it came time to go to bed she insisted that she wanted to sleep with Cloyse and at first would not be dissuaded. Finally Myrtle and Lorene "bribed" her with chewing gum to sleep with them instead. Everybody was happy – until the next morning when the gum was firmly stuck to Letha’s hair!

Another example of Maud’s desire to help a woman in need was when she asked Alice Berry to come and stay with her to help out some of the time when Maud was having a baby or in poor health. Alice had given birth to an infant out of wedlock and was somewhat ostracized in the community and treated badly even by her father. Maud’s acceptance of her helped her to "come out of her shell" and live a more normal life, eventually marrying and being a good neighbor to Maud.

Some of the stories they tell about their childhood make me wonder why Grandma only had one health breakdown! Maud ordered overall fabric in such quantity that she earned a premium large enough to order a coaster wagon, a red wagon with side boards. The boys would push the smaller boys in the wagon in a circle around the porch that ran around the house. There were wash tubs set on the low side of the house to catch the rain water. They were several feet below the floor of the porch at that point.

The boys pushed Raymond in the wagon as fast as possible around and around until finally the wagon skidded and dumped Raymond and the wagon into the washtubs full of water!

They didn’t have any passive children. They were always investigating and learning about how things worked. As they became more affluent, they started to get some conveniences – a kerosene refrigerator and a gasoline powered washing machine. The boys were fascinated. They were watching the agitator and got to wondering how powerful it was. Clelan and Raymond were teenagers with powerful muscles from all the work lifting and working with lumber and they were able to hold the agitator and stall the motor. Hoyle, a few years younger, was frustrated because he couldn’t do it, so he got the idea of bracing his arm against the side of the tub — and broke his arm! He wouldn’t cry because he knew he shouldn’t have been playing with it, but Myrtle examined it and declared it broken. A washing machine should have been an unmitigated blessing, but even that caused a problem!

Hoyle tells of an experiment he and Raymond did using a fire under a syrup bucket to produce steam to power a wheel’s turning. They used a tooth pick stuck in a hole in the bucket as a safety valve. It worked fine at first, but as the wooden toothpick got wet it expanded and failed to pop out. The steam blew the lid off the bucket and the steam covered Raymond’s face in an instant. It must have been extremely painful, but Raymond’s first thought was not the pain, but whether their Dad would know what they had been doing, so he immediately said, "How do I look?" At that moment the skin just peeled from his face. It is amazing that there was no permanent scarring. It must have taken nerves of steel to survive as the mother with things like that going on all around you.

Clyde married Robbie Stuart June 23, 1929. Myrtle married Troy Jeffery in April 1930. Lorene married Doyne Stuart December 24, 1932. The grandchildren had started to arrive well before Maud had finished having children, Douglas Stuart in 1921, Wallace Martin (Clee’s son) in 1922. Before their last child married (Clelan in 1948) they had 22 grandchildren. In all they had 27.

As a hostess to her adult children and their families, she was amazing! At the time, I took it for granted, but for countless Sundays everybody went to their house and stayed most of the day, eating together and visiting. For the grandchildren it was wonderful to get together with all those cousins (probably at least a dozen at any given time.) In the summer we would play in the "branch", the stream running by the springs, on the sawdust pile, or maybe practice riding Hoyle’s bike (which usually didn’t have a chain so had to be pushed up the hill so you could coast down it.) Another favorite activity was playing with the newest babies. Sometimes some of the men would take a truck and go to Batesville and buy a 100 pound block of ice and make ice cream! It gives me a tic in the eye to even think of having such a crowd of people coming to overrun the place every week or so!

In the winter it must have been even worse. Probably even then the children spent some of the time outside, but not as much. I remember running all over the place, up and down the porches that ran around the house, playing hide and seek. Once I hid in the attic when Hoyle was "It" and he stopped looking for me! Maybe I’ll forgive him some day. Now I wonder if Grandma put him up to it. That would keep us quiet at least for a few minutes!

I have no idea who cooked all the food for those get-togethers. I don’t remember my mother taking food for a pot-luck, but maybe it was done that way and I didn’t pay attention because I took the good food for granted.

Claren married Lucy Troy in December of 1936 and Cleston married Ivon Womack in December of 1937, leaving just three teen aged boys at home.

When World War II came along all five of the youngest Martin boys were in the age to be eligible for service in the armed forces. However, Cleston and Claren were married and had children. They went to Memphis to do work in some kind of defense work, so were not called into service. However, Clelan, Raymond and finally Hoyle were in the service. This was a very stressful time for this country with much fear, anxiety prevalent everywhere. I recently spoke with Lorene about how it must have felt for a mother or father to allow a son to go into the service in wartime. She said that her mother was devastated by this, that Clelan and Raymond went first, and then when even Hoyle, her youngest child, was called it was almost more than she could bear. They had some fearsome experiences but came home safely after the war.

During the war Hubert could not get the necessary parts to keep his mill operating, so closed it down and retired. In 1942 he built them a new three bedroom house with a living room, dining room, kitchen and bathroom. There was a basement with a well in it that had an electric pump for pumping water to the kitchen and bathroom. The house was a few miles away from their Banner house, on Highway 25 in Concord. For quite a few years they had been doing very well financially. Maud was able to have electricity in the old house even before the REA (Rural Electric) lines came through – powered by a Delco gasoline powered generator. She could buy whatever clothes she needed. They had a new car every few years. The new house was built just the way she wanted it – well, almost.

After the war the last three boys married, Hoyle to Ethelene Parish in December 1945, Raymond to Opal Davis in October 1946 and Clelan to Ava Newton in 1948.

When Tom and I visited Maud in the early 1950’s in the winter their pipes were frozen and she was having to carry water up in buckets from the basement. She was frustrated and annoyed remembering that Hubert, when the house was being built, kept saying, "That’s enough – that’s good enough!." She mimicked his words as she, a 70 year old woman, went bouncing up the steep concrete stairs with a large bucket full of water in each hand. He, according to her, couldn’t be bothered to wrap the pipes properly so they wouldn’t freeze.

I don’t know much about the relationship between Hubert and Maud. It is said that Hubert had a temper and took it out on his children at times, but I haven’t heard stories of his taking it out on her. However, she probably was afraid of his anger and maybe used "wiles" sometimes to get what she wanted. In a conversation with me and other women, probably my aunts, she said that if she couldn’t get what she wanted from him she would sometimes cry – lie across the bed with her face down and cry. It worked! The way she told the story it was humorous and showed a side of her that I had not known about before. She was great telling a funny story!

Lorene says she remembers her mother telling the children that she could tell when Hubert was mad by the way he walked and would imitate that walk. This, of course, was done out of his sight and was apparently meant to help them know when to be quiet and stay out of his way.

Maud did not take public roles. While Hubert liked to take leadership roles and lead singing, for instance, Maud did not. She did not pray in public or "testify" in church. I heard her once tell about the time when she was so ill, that she prayed and promised that if she lived she would see that her children were Christian and I have no doubt that she herself was devoutly Christian. Clyde says he remembers when he and the other children were still small, that she would sometimes call them in during the afternoon and kneel down with them and pray for them. He never forgot it.

Many times there would not be a functioning church in the Banner community, but they sometimes went to Uncle Leonard Cranford’s at Wolf Bayou and attended the Oak Grove Methodist Church. Some of the children were baptized there. Later she was inclined to prefer non-denominational churches. She became disenchanted with the way the local churches were operated with a great deal of arguing and controversy between them. This probably made her susceptible to the Jehovah’s Witness representatives in her later years. She listened to them, took them seriously and agreed with them in many things. She would get their literature from the Rudolphs but didn’t let Hubert see the literature. Hubert didn’t like or agree with the Jehovah’s Witness people and made them leave when he saw them there.

In the 1940’s the family get-togethers became maybe not quite so frequent, but it was and is a close knit family whose members genuinely like and enjoy each other’s company. They still continued to get together frequently. My parents and their family moved to Heber Springs in 1940 but went back to Banner/Concord every week or two. When our first child was born in 1956 we lived in Detroit. We brought him to Arkansas when he was about six months old to "show him off." Forty two people "dropped in" to see him!

Before Maud died January 9, 1966 she became afflicted with a "Parkinson like" disease with shaking of her head and hands. She also had an "Alzheimer like" ailment where she gradually had changes in her ability to function and care for the house and herself and gradually lost most of her speech. Finally about 1964 she was put in a nursing home in Heber Springs where she lived until she died. While she was there she was quite helpless but some aspects of her personality remained. She continued to show by her expression and a few words that she recognized us all when we visited. She continued to show warmth to little children when they visited. Once we were there with our little ones and visited her before we saw Grandpa. He reported that when he saw her the day after we left she remembered that she had seen me with a "bunch of babies."

Claudine and Norman Gray who ran the nursing home in Heber Springs where she spent her last months, wrote the family after her death. "It is not true that a patient in a Nursing Home is living a useless life, for each one that has been here has taught us a lesson in some way. Your mother gave us the gift of a wonderful sense of humor that came shining through all the trials of life, even in these last years when she was so ill."

I once asked her about how hard it must have been to have so many children and she laughed and said that she had been asked that question a number of times, and she agreed, but there was just one problem. She couldn’t find even one of her children she would want to "give back."

Maud asked that on her tombstone it should say only that "She has done what she could." All who knew her would agree that is indeed true, and what she did was a great deal!


From "Martin Family Stories" by Cleta Stuart-Porterfield
Sources for the information given, in addition to my memory, include:
Written notes by my mother, Elva Martin Stuart, Conversations with Maud’s children,
A newspaper article about their 50th wedding anniversary, Obituaries,Anecdotes written by my brother, Charles Stuart, after hearing them from Hubert and Maud’s children.

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