February 2 2015

Seven Days Battle – Order of Battle


No. 200. — Organization of the Confederate forces during the engagements around Richmond, Va.(*)




First (or Texas) Brigade.

Brig. Gen. JOHN B. HOOD.

18th Georgia.

1st Texas.

4th Texas.

5th Texas.

Hampton Legion.


Third Brigade

Col. E. M. Law.

4th Alabama.

2d Mississippi.

11th Mississippi.

6th North Carolina.


Balthis’ battery, Staunton (via) Artillery.

Reilly’s battery, Rowan (N. C.) Artillery.

February 2 2015

Peninsular Campaign – Order of Battle

Organization of the Army of Northern Virginia,  commanded by General Joseph E. Johnston, on the Peninsula, about April 30, 1862.(*)


RIGHT OF POSITION.- Maj. Gen. J. B. MAGRUDER commanding.


Brig. Gen. L. McLAWS commanding.

McLaws’ Brigade.

Brig. Gen. L. McLAWS commanding.

5th Louisiana                  744

10th Louisiana                595

15th Virginia                   476

Noland’s battalion            162

Garrett’s battery               50

Young’s battery               57


Griffith’s Brigade.

Brig. Gen. RICHARD GRIFFITH commanding.

1st Louisiana Battalion     315

13th Mississippi               640

18th Mississippi               684

21st Mississippi               792

Cosnahan’s battery          51

Howitzer battery             103

Manly’s battery               37

Read’s battery                 72

Sands’ battery                 80


Kershaw’s Brigade.

Brig. Gen. J. B. KERSHAW commanding.

2d South Carolina            616

3d South Carolina            550

7th South Carolina           581

8th South Carolina           467

Gracie’s battalion             276

Kemper’s battery            77


Cobb’s Brigade.

Brig. Gen. HOWELL COBB commanding.

16th Georgia                   488

24th Georgia                   660

Cobb’s Georgia Legion      594

2d Louisiana                   782

17th Mississippi               692

15th North Carolina         532

Page’s battery                  48



10th Georgia, Col. A. Cumming commanding           582

Effective strength of McLaws’ division                    11,803



Brig. Gen. R. TOOMBS commanding.

Toombs’ Brigade.

Brig. Gen. R. TOOMBS commanding.

1st Georgia (Regulars)       367

2d Georgia                      607

15th Georgia                   441

17th Georgia                   398

38th Virginia                   544


D. R. Jones’ Brigade.

Brig. Gen. P. J. SEMMES commanding.

7th Georgia                     611

8th Georgia                     251

9th Georgia                     411

11th Georgia                   573

1st Kentucky                  496


Total effective strength of Toombs’ division          4,699


Col. B. S. EWELL commanding.

32d Virginia (one company)          29

52d Virginia Militia                      30

68th Virginia Militia                     20

115th Virginia Militia                    40

Old Dominion Rifles                     60

Allen’s artillery battalion                500

Companies artillery B and C          121


Total effective strength of the right wing, Major-General Magruder commanding      17,302


A. P. Hills Brigade.

Brig. Gen. A. P. HILL commanding.

1st Virginia                     400

7th Virginia                     700

11th Virginia                   750

17th Virginia                   600

Rogers’ battery                62


Anderson’s Brigade.

Brig. Gen. R. H. ANDERSON commanding.

4th South Carolina           450

5th South Carolina           650

6th South Carolina           550

9th South Carolina           450

Stribling’s battery             68


Colston’s Brigade.

Brig. Gen. R. E. COLSTON commanding.

3d Virginia                      550

13th North Carolina         575

14th North Carolina         625


Pickett’s Brigade.

Brig. Gen. G. E. PICKETT commanding.

8th Virginia                     450

18th Virginia                   700

19th Virginia                   650

28th Virginia                   600

Dearing’s battery              60


Wilcox’s Brigade.

Brig. Gen. C. M. WILCOX commanding.

9th Alabama                  550

10th Alabama                 550

11th Alabama                 656

19th Mississippi               800

Stanard’s battery                         60


Pryor’s Brigade.

Col. J. A. WINSTON commanding.

8th Alabama                  800

14th Alabama                 700

14th Louisiana                750

Macon’s battery              60


Total effective strength of the forces in the center of position, commanded by Maj. Gen. James Longstreet        13,816

LEFT OF POSITION.- Maj. Gen. D. H. HILL commanding.


Brig. Gen. J. A. EARLY commanding.

Early’s Brigade.

Brig. Gen. J. A. EARLY commanding.

20th Georgia                   560

5th North Carolina           460

23d North Carolina          540

24th Virginia                   740

Jeff. Davis Artillery          80


Rode’s Brigade.

Brig. Gen. R. E. RODES commending.

5th Alabama                  660

6th Alabama                  1,100

12th Alabama                 550

12th Mississippi               650

King William Artillery       80



Colonel WARD commanding.

2d Florida                       530

2d Mississippi Battalion    360


Total Brig. Gen. J. A. Early’s division       6,310


Brig. Gen. G. J. RAINS commanding.

Rains’ Brigade.

Brig. Gen. G. J. RAINS commanding.

Forces within the post (Yorktown):

13th Alabama                 494

26th Alabama                 283

6th Georgia                     703

23d Georgia                    370


Nineteen heavy batteries               1,151

Featherston’s Brigade.

Brig. Gen. W. S. FEATHERSTON commanding.

27th Georgia                   428

28th Georgia                   518

4th North Carolina           739

49th Virginia                   539



Gloucester Point.

Colonel CRUMP commanding.

46th Virginia                               356

9th Virginia Militia.                      29

21st Virginia Militia                      39

61st Virginia Militia                      201

Detachment cavalry.                    18

Detachment from Eastern Shore     58

Matthews Light Dragoons             40

Armistead’s battery                      46

Battalion heavy artillery               332


Total Rains’ division                   6,324

Total effective strength left of position                  12,634

RESERVE.- Maj. Gen. G. W. SMITH commanding.


Brig. Gen. W. H. C. WHITING commanding.

Whiting’s Brigade.

Brig. Gen. W. H. C. WHITING commanding.

4th Alabama      459

2d Mississippi      477

11 th Mississippi 504

6th North Carolina..         715

Imboden’s battery            111

Reilly’s battery    132


Hood’ s Brigade.

Brig. Gen. J. B. HOOD commanding.

18th Georgia       634

1st Texas           477

4th Texas           470

5th Texas           341


Hampton’s Brigade.

Col. W. HAMPTON commanding.

14th Georgia       379

19th Georgia       395

16th North Carolina         721

Hampton Legion             658

Moody’s battery. 72


Total Brigadier General Whiting’s division           6, 545


Anderson’s Brigade.

Brig. Gen. S. R. ANDERSON commanding.

1st Tennessee     }

7th Tennessee     }           Estimated          2,030

14th Tennessee   }

Braxton’s battery }

Pettigrew’s Brigade.

Brig. Gen. J. J. PETTIGREW commanding.

Arkansas Battalion          146

35th Georgia       545

22d North Carolina          752

47th Virginia       444

Andrews’ battery 130


Total effective strength of reserve, commanded by Maj. Gen. G. W. Smith         10,592

Cavalry Brigade.

Brig. Gen. J. E. B. STUART commanding.

1st Virginia Cavalry         437

4th Virginia Cavalry         540

Jeff. Davis Legion            171

Stuart Horse Artillery        141

Total     1,289

Reserve Artillery.

Brig. Gen. W. N. PENDLETON commanding.


Pendleton’s artillery corps 36

Washington Artillery         20

Total    56


Total effective strength right wing, Major-General Magruder commanding         17,302

Total effective strength center of position, Major-General Longstreet commanding         13,816

Total effective strength left of position, Maj. Gen. D. H. Hill commanding         12,634

Total effective strength of reserve, Maj. Gen. G. W. Smith commanding            10,592

Total effective strength cavalry brigade, Brig. Gen. J. E. B. Stuart commanding  1,289

Total    55,633

Reserve Artillery, Brigadier Pendleton commanding, 56 pieces.

February 2 2015

Maryland Campaign – Order of Battle

SEPTEMBER 3-20, 1862.-The Maryland Campaign.
No. 204.–Organization of the Army of Northern Virginia, General Robert E. Lee, commanding, during the Maryland Campaign.


Brig. Gen. JOHN R. JONES.
Brig. Gen. W E. STARKE.

Winder’s Brigade.

Lieut. Col. R. D. GARDNER (FourthVirginia).

2d Virginia, Capt. R. T. Colston.

4th Virginia, Lieut. Col. R. D. Gardner.

5th Virginia, Maj. H. J. Williams.

27th Virginia, Capt. F. C. Wilson.

33d Virginia, Captain Golladay and Lieutenant Walton.

Taliaferro’s Brigade.

Col. E. T. H. WARREN.

47th Alabama.

48th Alabama.

10th Virginia.

23d Virginia.

37th Virginia.

Jones’ Brigade.

Capt. J. E. PENN.
Capt. A. C. PAGE.
Capt. R. W. WITHERS.

21st Virginia, Capt. A. C. Page.

42d Virginia, Capt. R. W. Withers.

48th Virginia, Captain Candler.

1st Virginia Battalion, Lieut. C. A. Davidson.

Starke’s Brigade.


1st Louisiana, Lieut. Col. M. Nolan.

2d Louisiana, Col. J. M. Williams.

9th Louisiana.

10th Louisiana, Capt. H. D. Monier.

15th Louisiana.

Coppens’ (Louisiana) battalion.



Alleghany (Virginia) Artillery (Carpenter’s battery).

Brockenbrough’s (Maryland) battery.

Danville (Virginia) Artillery (Wooding’s battery).

Hampden (Virginia)Artillery (Caskie’s battery).

Lee (Virginia) Battery (Raine’s battery).

Rockbridge (Virginia) Artillery (Poague’s battery).



Ripley’s Brigade.


4th Georgia, Col. George Doles.

44th Georgia, Captain Key.

1st North Carolina, Lieut. Col. H.A. Brown.

3d North Carolina, Col. William L. De Rosset.

Rodes’ Brigade.

Brig. Gen. R. E. RODES.

3d Alabama, Col. C. A. Battle.

5th Alabama. Maj. E. L. Hobson.

6th Alabama, Col. J. B. Gordon.

12th Alabama, Col. B. B. Gayle and Lieut. Col. S. B. Pickens.

26th Alabama, Col. E. A. O’Neal.

Garland’s Brigade.

Brig. Gen. SAMUEL GARLAND, jr.
Col. D. K. McRAE.

5th North Carolina, Col. D. K. McRae and Capt. T. M. Garrett.

12th North Carolina, Capt. S. Snow.

13th North Carolina, Lieut. Col. Thomas Ruffin, jr.

20th North Carolina, Col. Alfred Iverson.

23d North Carolina, Col. D. H. Christie.

Anderson’s Brigade.


2d North Carolina, Col. C. C. Tew and Capt. G. M. Roberts.

4th North Carolina. Col. Bryan Grimes and Capts. W. T. Marsh and D. P. Latham.

14th North Carolina, Col. R. T. Bennett.

30th North Carolina, Col. F. M. Parker and Maj. W. W. Sillers.

Colquitt’s Brigade.


13th Alabama, Col. B. D. Fry.

6th Georgia, Lieut. Col. J.M. Newton.

23d Georgia, Col. W. P. Barclay.

27th Georgia, Col. L. B. Smith.

28th Georgia, Maj. T. Graybill and Capt. N.J. Garrison.



Hardaway’s (Alabama) battery, Capt. R. A. Hardaway.

Jeff. Davis (Alabama) Artillery, Capt. J. W. Bondurant.

Jones’ (Virginia) battery, Capt. William B. Jones.

King William (Virginia) Artillery, Capt. T. H. Carter.

February 2 2015

Fredericksburg – Order of battle

DECEMBER 11-15, 1862.–Battle of Fredericksburg, Va.
No. 263.–Organization of the Army of Northern Virginia.






First Brigade.

Brig. Gen. R. E. RODES.

3d Alabama.

5th Alabama.

6th Alabama.

12th Alabama.

26th Alabama.

Second (Ripley’s) Brigade.


4th Georgia.

44th Georgia, Col. John B. Estes.

1st North Carolina.

3d North Carolina.

Third Brigade.

Brig. Gen. A. H. COLQUITT.

13th Alabama.

6th Georgia.

23d Georgia.

27th Georgia.

28th Georgia.

Fourth Brigade.


5th North Carolina.

12th North Carolina.

20th North Carolina.

23d North Carolina.

Fifth (Ramseur’s) Brigade.


2d North Carolina.

4th North Carolina.

14th North Carolina.

30th North Carolina.


Maj. H. P. JONES.

Hardaway’s (Alabama) battery.

Jeff. Davis (Alabama) Artillery (Bondurant’s battery).

King William (Virginia) Artillery (Carter’s battery).

Morris (Virginia) Artillery (Page’s battery).

Orange (Virginia) Artillery (Fry’s battery).



First (Field’s) Brigade.


40th Virginia.

47th Virginia, Col. Robert M. Mayo.

55th Virginia.

22d Virginia Battalion, Lieut. Col. E.P. Tayloe.

Second Brigade.

(1.) Brig. Gen. MAXCY GREGG.
(2.) Col. D. H. HAMILTON.

1st South Carolina (P. A.), Col. D. H. Hamilton.

1st South Carolina Rifles.

12th South Carolina.

13th South Carolina.

14th South Carolina, Col. Samuel McGowan.

Third Brigade.

Brig. Gen. E. L. THOMAS.

14th Georgia.

35th Georgia.

45th Georgia.

49th Georgia.

Fourth Brigade.

Brig. Gen. J. H. LANE.

7th North Carolina, Lieut. Col. J. L. Hill.

18th North Carolina, Col. Thomas J. Purdie.

28th North Carolina, Col. S. D. Lowe.

33d North Carolina, Col. Clark M. Avery.

37th North Carolina, Col. W. M. Barbour.

Fifth Brigade.

Brig. Gen. J. J. ARCHER.

5th Alabama Battalion:

Maj. A. S. Van de Graaff.

Capt. S. D. Stewart.

19th Georgia, Lieut. Col. A. J. Hutchins.

1st Tennessee (Provisional Army):

Col. Peter Turney.

Lieut. Col. N.J. George.

Capt. M. Turney.

Capt. H. J. Hawkins.

7th Tennessee, Col. John F. Goodner.

14th Tennessee, Lieut. Col. J. W. Lockert.

Sixth Brigade.

(1.) Brig.Gen. WILLIAM D. PENDER
(2.) Col. A. M. SCALES.

13th North Carolina, Col. A.M. Scales.

16th North Carolina, Col. John S. McElroy.

22d North Carolina, Maj. Christopher C. Cole.

34th North Carolina.

38th North Carolina.


Lieut. Col. R. L. WALKER.

Branch (North Carolina) Artillery, Lieut. J. R. Potts.

Crenshaw (Virginia) Battery, Lieut. J. Ellett.

Fredericksburg (Virginia) Artillery, Lieut. E. A. Marye.

Johnson’s (Virginia) battery, Lieut. V. J. Clutter.

Letcher (Virginia) Artillery, Capt. G. Davidson.

Pee Dee (South Carolina) Artillery, Capt. D. G. Mcintosh.

Purcell (Virginia) Artillery, Capt. W. J. Pegram.

February 2 2015

Valley Campaign – Order of Battle

Correspondence, Orders, And Returns Relating To Operations In Northern Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, And Pennsylvania From November 15, 1862, To January 26, 1863.


Maj. Gen. D. H. HILL.

First Brigade.

Brig. Gen. R. E. RODES.

3d Alabama, Col. Cullen A. Battle.

5th Alabama, Lieut. Col. Edwin L. Hobson.

6th Alabama, Col. John B. Gordon.

12th Alabama, Lieut. Col. Samuel B. Pickens.

26th Alabama, Lieut. Col. Edward A. O’Neal.

Second Brigade.


4th Georgia, Col. Philip Cook.

44th Georgia, Col. John B. Estes.

1st North Carolina, Col. John A. McDowell.

3d North Carolina, Col. William L. De Rosset.

Third Brigade.

Brig. Gen. A. H. COLQUITT.

13th Alabama, Col. B. D. Fry.

6th Georgia, Col. John T. Lofton.

23d Georgia, Col. E. F. Best.

27th Georgia, Col. C. T. Zachry.

28th Georgia, Maj. Tully Graybill.

Fourth Brigade.

Brig. Gen. A. IVERSON.

5th North Carolina, Lieut. Col. P. J. Sinclair.

12th North Carolina, Col. Benjamin O. Wade.

20th North Carolina, Lieut. Col. William H. Toon.

23d North Carolina, Col. Daniel H. Christie.

Fifth Brigade.

Brig. Gen. S. D. RAMSEUR.

2d North Carolina, Col. W. P. Bynum.

4th North Carolina, Col. Bryan Grimes.

14th North Carolina, Col. R. T. Bennett.

30th North Carolina, Col. F. M. Parker.


Maj. H. P. JONES.

Hardaway’s battery, Capt. R. A. Hardaway.

Jeff. Davis (Alabama) Artillery, Capt. J. W. Bondurant.

King William (Virginia) Artillery, Capt. T. H. Carter.

Morris (Virginia)Artillery, Capt. R. C. M. Page.

Orange (Virginia) Artillery, Capt. C. W. Fry.

APRIL 27-MAY 6, 1863.–The Chancellorsville Campaign.
No. 308.–Organization of the Army of Northern Virginia.(*)


(1) Brig. Gen. R. E. RODES.
(2) Brig. Gen. S. D. RAMSEUR.

Rodes’ Brigade.

(1) Brig. Gen. R. E. RODES.
(2) Col. E. A. O’NEAL.
(3) Col. J. M. HALL.

3d Alabama, Capt. M. F. Bonham.

5th Alabama:

Col. J. M. Hall.

Lieut. Col. E. L. Hobson.

Capt. W. T. Renfro.

Capt. T. M. Riley.

6th Alabama, Col. James N. Lightfoot.

12th Alabama, Col. Samuel B. Pickens.

26th Alabama:

Col. E. A. O’Neal.

Lieut. Col. John S. Garvin.

Lieut. M. J. Taylor.

Colquitt’s Brigade.

Brig. Gen. A. H. COLQUITT.

6th Georgia, Col. John T. Lofton.

19th Georgia, Col. A. J. Hutchins.

23d Georgia, Col. Emory F. Best.

27th Georgia, Col. C. T. Zachry.

28th Georgia, Col. Tully Graybill.

Ramseur’s Brigade.

(1) Brig. Gen. S. D. RAMSEUR.
(2) Col. F. M. PARKER.

2d North Carolina, Col. W. R. Cox.

4th North Carolina, Col. Bryan Grimes.

14th North Carolina, Col. R. T. Bennett.

30th North Carolina, Col. F. M. Parker.

Doles’ Brigade.


4th Georgia:

Col. Philip Cook.

Lieut. Col. D. R. E. Winn.

12th Georgia, Col. Edward Willis.

21st Georgia, Col. J. T. Mercer.

44th Georgia, Col. J. B. Estes.

Iverson’s Brigade.


5th North Carolina:

Col. Thomas M. Garrett.

Lieut. Col. J. W. Lea.

Maj. William J. Hill.

Capt. S. B. West.

12th North Carolina:

Maj. D. P. Rowe.

Lieut. Col. R. D. Johnston, of the 23d North Carolina.

20th North Carolina: Col. T. F. Toon. Lieut. Col. N. Slough.

23d North Carolina, Col. D. H. Christie.


Lieut. Col. T. H. CARTER.

Reese’s, formerly Bondurant’s (Alabama) battery (Jeff. Davis Artillery).

Carter’s (Virginia) battery (King William Artillery).

Fry’s (Virginia) battery (‘Orange Artillery).

Page’s (Virginia) battery (Morris Artillery

February 2 2015

Battle of Seven Pines

MAY 31- JUNE 1, 1862– Battle of Fair Oaks, or Seven Pines, Va.
No. 114. — Reports of Brig. Gen. R. E. Rodes, C. S. Army, commanding brigade.

RICHMOND, VA., June 7, 1862.

MAJOR: I have the honor to make the following report of the operations of the Third Brigade, Major-General Hill’s division, on the 31st ultimo, up to the time at which the command of the brigade was turned over to Col. John B. Gordon, of the Sixth Alabama Regiment:

On the morning of the 31st the brigade was stationed on the Charles City road 3½ miles from the point on the Williamsburg road from which t had been determined to start the columns of attack.

Between 10 and 11 a.m. I received an order through an officer of Major-General Hill’s staff to put my brigade in motion under an officer of my staff, and to proceed in person by the shortest route to General Hill’s quarters, then on the field, from which the attacking columns were to start. I obeyed this order promptly, and upon reporting to Major-General Hill ascertained that the order sent through the officer alluded to had been erroneously delivered–not misunderstood, for all the officers of my staff, including my volunteer aide, Lieut. Greene Peyton, heard and understood it as I did. Finding that the movement of my brigade under this order was premature, with Major-General Hill’s approval I sent a staff officer to remand it to its original position. A short time after this I received a verbal order from General Hill to conduct my command at once to the point at which the attack was to be made. Hastening to execute this order, I found the brigade on the road, and after carefully giving the instructions for battle which had Just been given me by Major-General Hill to the commanding officers of regiments, conducted it by the route designated in orders toward the Williamsburg road. The progress of the brigade was considerably delayed by the washing away of a bridge near the head of White Oak Swamp, by reason of which the men had to wade in water waist-deep and a large number were entirely submerged. At this point the character of the crossing was such that it was absolutely necessary to proceed with great caution to prevent the loss of both ammunition and life.

In consequence of this delay, and notwithstanding the men were carried at a doublequick time over very heavy ground a considerable distance to make up for it, when the signal for attack was given only my line of skirmishers, the Sixth Alabama and another regiment, the Twelfth Mississippi, were in position. Having received, while on the march, several messages from General Hill urging me to move forward, I warned him before the signal was given, through Captain Tayloe, of his staff, and also through an orderly, whom he had sent to ascertain my position, that I could not possibly reach the point from which we were to start within less than half an hour. When the signal was given my line of skirmishers and the Twelfth Mississippi Regiment moved to the attack and immediately thereafter the action began. Under these circumstances, as each of the remaining regiments came up I caused it to move forward to the attack, so that my brigade moved to the field of battle en échelon and in the following order: 1st, Sixth Alabama Regiment, Colonel Gordon commanding, deployed as skirmishers, covering the whole front of the brigade; 2d, Twelfth Mississippi, Col. W. H. Taylor, moving with its left on the Williamsburg road; 3d, Heavy Artillery Battalion, Capt. C. C. Otey commanding; 4th, Fifth Alabama Regiment, Col. C. C. Pegues commanding; 5th, Twelfth Alabama Regiment, Col. R. T. Jones commanding. The King William Artillery, Capt. Thomas H. Carter commanding, I ordered to proceed by the shortest route to the Williamsburg road, and to follow the left of the brigade along that road after the whole of the brigade had advanced.

Ascertaining the position of the right of the Twelfth Mississippi Regiment, I endeavored to move the remaining regiments rapidly into line of battle with it; but finding that this regiment was pressed, I moved the Fifth Alabama directly to its support. The ground over which we were to move being covered with very thick undergrowth, and the soil being very marshy, so marshy that it was with great difficulty either horses or men could get over it, and being guided only by the fire in front, I emerged from the woods upon the Williamsburg road under a heavy fire of both artillery and musketry with only five companies of the Fifth Alabama; the remaining companies, having become separated, had moved into the abatis in their front and on the right of the Twelfth Mississippi. Finding that the Twelfth Mississippi had moved forward into the abitis and was gallantly holding its own along its front, and my battle instructions requiring me to operate upon the right of the Williamsburg road, I ordered the left wing of the Fifth to move through the abatis and join the right, and moving toward the right myself, found the battalion of heavy artillery opposite their position in line, but halted and lying down in the wood behind the abatis, which Captain Bagby, temporarily in command, informed me was in obedience to an order from Major-General Hill. Ordering them forward, I proceeded farther to the right, and found that the Twelfth Alabama, which had moved over less difficult ground than the other regiments had, was considerably in advance of the brigade, and that, together with the Sixth, still deployed as skirmishers, it was engaging the enemy, having driven him steadily up to his intrenchments. Concentrating the Sixth, I moved both it and the Twelfth Alabama about 60 yards to the rear, in order to form the whole brigade in a continuous line preparatory to an advance upon the enemy’s earthworks.

While arranging the line of battle the left wing of the Fifth Alabama Regiment, under Maj. E. L. Hobson (Lieut. Col. J. M. Hall having been wounded), in its eagerness to engage the enemy at close quarters and having misunderstood my order to move to the right, moved forward without orders into the field in front of the abatis and directly under the guns of the redoubt. After holding its position there a few minutes and finding that its movement was premature it moved back in perfect order, under a heavy fire of artillery and musketry, to the front of the abatis. My line of battle was thus completed. It was formed under a heavy fire throughout its entire extent and seemed about equal in extent to that of the enemy, which was then in front of his camp and was protected by a redoubt and intrenchments.

My instructions for battle required me under these circumstances to move my command the length of a brigade to the right to give place to the supporting brigade, but having discovered soon after my arrival upon the field in front of the enemy’s works some of the troops of the supporting brigade on the right of my brigade, I sent to communicate with its commanding officer, and found the whole of his brigade on the right of my own. I therefore determined to attack from the position my brigade then held, and requested General Rains, who commanded the supporting brigade, through an officer of my staff and soon after in person, to move forward his brigade through the woods, so as to protect my right flank while I attacked the enemy in front. He stated to me that he apprehended an attack on his own right flank, and declined, therefore, to move; his brigade had a few moments before occupied a line extending from my right obliquely to the front, and at the moment of our conversation was being thrown back on a line parallel to and a little in rear of that occupied by mine.

By this time the enemy began to show signs of wavering under the effects of a heavy fire from a Confederate battery on my left, which proved to be the King William Artillery, under Captain Carter. Their battery of seven guns was in a moment after silenced and the occupants of the redoubt driven out by Captain Carter’s five pieces. Captain Carter, so far as the enemy’s first line of intrenchments was concerned, had achieved a victory, for upon moving forward with the whole brigade to attack the enemy, having already abandoned his guns and redoubt, fled from his intrenchments and camp to occupy a line of abatis and woods about 150 yards in rear of the redoubt, leaving behind him seven pieces of artillery, several horses, a large quantity of quartermaster’s, commissary, and medical stores, including a large quantity of lemons, one four-horse wagon and team, with a large amount of baggage of both officers and men.

From this new position they opened fire upon my right regiment, the Sixth Alabama, across an open field. Finding that they outflanked smartly my right and that my left was exposed, as I saw no Confederate troops on that flank, and that the brigade would be well protected on the outside of the enemy’s works and by a fence extending in front of a thin skirt of woods occupied by my right regiment, I gave orders that it should occupy and hold that line while I waited for General Rains to come up on my right and until I could examine the ground to the left of the Williamsburg road, my left flank being approached closely by woods. At the moment of our taking possession of the works I discovered a brigade of Federal infantry approaching my brigade from the woods just mentioned on the left of the Williamsburg road. The head of this column halted within 350 yards of the redoubt. I immediately caused the Fifth Alabama to occupy the redoubt and the Twelfth Mississippi to occupy the rifle pits between the redoubt and the Williamsburg road, and called for a company of the heavy artillery to turn upon the enemy’s column some of his abandoned guns, an order which Captain Bagby’s company promptly obeyed. But before he succeeded in opening fire Captain Carter arrived with his battery, and immediately opened fire with the first of his pieces and in a moment afterward with a second. In a few moments Captain Bagby, having succeeded in getting two of the enemy’s pieces in position, opened fire upon him, and then under the combined fire of those four pieces he gave way and retired.

An attack being threatened in front, as soon as the force on the left was dispersed one of Captain Carter’s pieces was, under the direction of Major-General Hill, who had just arrived, placed in such a position as to enfilade the road. At this moment, from a point 600 or 700 yards down this road and directly in front of our position, the enemy’s battery opened fire upon us with considerable effect, sweeping off almost every man from Captain Carter’s last-mentioned piece. This fire was at once replied to by Captain Carter’s four remaining pieces and by one or two pieces of the Latham Battery, which just then arrived, under Captain Dearing.

It was at this juncture that Captain Carter and his men gave a second illustration of their extraordinary coolness and courage, the first having been given in unlimbering his pieces in an open field and attacking with success the enemy’s redoubt, defended by heavier pieces than his, at the distance of 400 yards.

Finding that Confederate troops were arriving on my right and left, I ordered my brigade to move forward again, which it bravely did, though encountering a heavy fire of musketry and artillery from the enemy concealed behind a second row of abatis, woods, and fence. My two right regiments, the Sixth and Twelfth Alabama, suffered severely in this advance. The Sixth Alabama, upon moving across the field in the edge of which they had first halted and entering the woods on the opposite side, driving the enemy before them, encountered a heavy fire of musketry upon its right and front and finally upon the rear of its right wing. Under these circumstances, and finding that my right was not supported by the brigade of General Rains, which was but a short distance behind, and which having advanced somewhat extended now from a point opposite the center of the Sixth Alabama Regiment toward the right and was in sight of the Sixth Alabama Regiment, I ordered this regiment to fall back to the position it had last occupied on the edge of the field, where it was about in line with the enemy’s intrenchments, and where, though still under fire, it was somewhat protected.

I feel decidedly confident that if we had been properly supported in the last charge the brigade would have marched on with uninterrupted progress, because the enemy invariably yielded to a direct advance, and the Inert and officers of this brigade everywhere exhibited great courage and an earnest desire to close with him.

When the Sixth Alabama moved back, the right wing of the Twelfth Alabama, under command of its lieutenant-colonel–Col. R. T. Jones having been killed a few minutes before, while leading forward his men–retired with it and took position on its left behind the intrenchments. The left wing also started to retire, but at the command of its Major (S. B. Pickens) promptly resumed its position, but afterward fell back to a position in front of the intrenchments. At this time a portion of the Heavy Artillery Battalion retired and, I regret to say, headed by their officers, took refuge in the ditches in front of the enemy’s redoubt, a position from which I had much difficulty in dislodging them when they were called upon to man the redoubt.

I did not attempt to re-establish either this portion of the battalion of the Twelfth Alabama Regiment in the position from which they had withdrawn, because it was evident that nothing could be effected toward an advance while the right wing of the brigade was so exposed. A part of the battalion, the Fifth Alabama, and Twelfth Mississippi Regiments continued to hold their ground steadily, though subjected to a constant fire from the enemy’s musketry, which inflicted a severe loss upon them. The enemy’s batteries in the mean time had been silenced, but while the contest between them and our own was going on the Twelfth Mississippi and a portion of the Fifth Alabama, which were directly between these batteries, maintained their posts without flinching.

Just after the Twelfth Alabama had fallen back and about an hour after the brigade had assumed its most advanced position, during which time it had been under constant fire of musketry, re-enforcements commenced to arrive, and in assisting General Kemper to place his brigade, so that it could move forward to relieve my advance regiments, which by this time had been under fire fully three hours, I received a wound in the arm, which in a short time became so painful as to compel me to turn over the command of the brigade to Colonel Gordon, of the Sixth Alabama. I did not leave the field, though, until sunset.

The loss in the brigade, and especially in the Sixth Alabama and Twelfth Mississippi Regiments, had already been serious, but in this second forward movement, and while holding the advanced position, the loss inflicted upon it was far heavier, the Sixth Alabama having lost more than half its force.

Among the other casualties incident to the second advance I regret to say that some of the best officers of the brigade were killed. Col. R. T. Jones, of the Twelfth Alabama, the most accomplished officer in the brigade; Lieutenant-Colonel Willingham and Major Nesmith, of the Sixth Alabama, and Capt. C. C. Otey, of the Heavy Artillery Battalion, who had been conspicuous for their gallantry and efficiency, fell while pushing forward with their men into the thickest of the fight.

As a matter of duty and with pride and pleasure I bear testimony to the gallantry and steadiness of the whole brigade. Nowhere during the war has their conduct been excelled in any particular whereof a soldier might be proud to boast. The conduct of the King William Artillery has nowhere in the history of the war been equaled(*) for daring, coolness, or efficiency.

It is of course impossible for me to have noticed all those individuals who among so many brave men especially distinguished themselves, but it is my duty to mention the names of some who attracted my attention and to recommend those of them who are still living as worthy to receive the badge of honor alluded to in General Orders, No. 11, Longstreet’s division, May 23, 1862.

Among the living whose gallantry and coolness entitle them to distinction I beg to mention Col. J. B. Gordon, Sixth Alabama; Col. C. C. Pegues, Fifth Alabama; Col. W. H. Taylor, Twelfth Mississippi; Maj. E. L. Hobson, Fifth Alabama; Maj. S. B. Pickens, Twelfth Alabama; Capt. T. H. Carter, King William Artillery; Captains Bagby and White and Lieutenant Yeatman, of the Heavy Artillery Battalion; Capt. A.M. Gordon, Sixth Alabama; Capt. Extort Tucker, Twelfth Alabama; Private Johnston, King William Artillery, and Sergt. Robert Hall, Twelfth Mississippi Regiment.

For those that are dead I beg that the testimonial to their distinguished merit may be transmitted to their nearest relatives. Among those to whose memory it is eminently due are Col. R. T. Jones, Lieutenant-Colonel Willingham, Major Nesmith, and Capt. C. C. Otey. Captains Fox and Bell, of the Sixth Alabama; Captains Keeling and Darwin, of the Twelfth Alabama; Captain Hastings, of the Twelfth Mississippi, and Lieutenant Newman, of the ‘King William Artillery, though not coming under my own observation, are reported to me by those competent to judge as having behaved with such coolness and gallantry as to entitle them also to the testimonial. Many others are doubtless equally deserving of honorable mention, but none of them have been formally reported to me.

My staff officers–Maj. D. T. Webster, acting commissary of subsistence; Capt. H. A. Whiting, assistant adjutant-general; Lieuts. P. T. Sutton and Greene Peyton, aides de-camp–conducted themselves in such a gallant manner and were so efficient that it is my duty to recommend them as worthy to receive the badge of distinction. Lieutenant Sutton was wounded so severely in the arm at the close of the day as to render amputation necessary. Captain Whiting had his horse killed under him. Major Webster’s horse was killed also.

The brigade was under a constant fire of musketry and artillery during five and a half hours, and hence its loss was heavy. The following statement exhibits the casualties in the different regiments and the battery:

O          Officers.            K          Killed.

M         Men.                 W         Wounded.

A          Missing.

—–K—–            —–W—-            —–A—-

Command.                     O          M         O          M         O          M

Brigade staff                   ….         ….         2          ….         ….         ….

5th Alabama                  1          28         10         171       ….         ….

6th Alabama                  9          82         22         255       ….         5

12th Alabama                 5          54         6          143       ….         ….

12th Mississippi               5          36         8          144       ….         ….

Carter’s battery                1          4          1          24         ….         ….

Heavy Artillery Battalion 3          13         3          64         ….         ….

Total                            24         217       52         801       ….         5

Aggregate loss,                   1,099.

The total number of men carried into action was about 2,200. The aggregate number present at camp was, however, 2,587.

The Sixth Alabama lost near 60 per cent. of its aggregate force. Some of its men were drowned after having been wounded, as they fought at times in a swamp in which the water was from 6 inches to 2 feet in depth.

The right company of the Sixth Alabama was thrown back at right angles to the line of battle by Colonel Gordon to protect his rear, and engaged the enemy at such close quarters that its brave commander, Captain Bell, after having fallen wounded mortally, was able to use his revolver with effect upon the enemy. This company fought with great heroism. Its loss was 21 killed and 23 wounded out of a total of 55.

Respectfully submitted.

R.   E. RODES,

Assistant Adjutant-General, Third Division.


–, 1862.

This report is forwarded at the request of General Rodes, to be published with my own, which he thinks does not do justice to his brigade, and especially to Captain Carter. General Rodes thinks that the battery of Captain Carter had much to do with the evacuation of the enemy’s works. The truth is, he fired but twice at the redoubts. I ordered him to confine his attention to the infantry re-enforcements coming up the road. These he broke by a well-directed fire, when exposed himself to a fire of both musketry and artillery. He afterward broke a second column advancing to retake the works, and unquestionably the day would have been lost but for his battery. However, I had a full view of the field from my position, and could see no movement toward evacuating the works till General Rains opened fire on the flank and rear. This brigade (Rains’), unfortunately, did little more. Had he pressed vigorously on the right, 500 casualties would have been saved in Rodes’ brigade.

D.   H. HILL,

MAY 31- JUNE 1, 1862– Battle of Fair Oaks, or Seven Pines, Va.
No. 118. — Report of Lieut. Col. B. B. Gayle, Twelfth Alabama Infantry.

June 5, 1862.

On Saturday, May 31, this regiment, in company with the others of General Rodes’ brigade, left camp about 12 o’clock for the purpose of attacking the enemy. After penetrating a swamp knee-deep in water we were in full view of the foe, and forthwith received a heavy fire from him. We lay on the ground in the edge of the woods for a short time, using our long range guns to no bad purpose. An order was then received to move forward to the right. This was done without hesitation, and the right wing, having to cross an open field, received a heavy fire.

Here several of our men were wounded, but none, I believe, killed. We did not remain long in this position, for the enemy, seeing that another regiment to our right was about to flank them, retired. In a few moments the whole brigade was in line, and after making a half wheel to the left commenced to charge upon the breastworks and camp of the enemy. In this charge the men were exposed to a terrific fire, but their steady movements showed too clearly to the enemy a determination to cross bayonets with them had they remained a few minutes longer. We pushed onward, and on reaching the works that were then deserted found ourselves exposed to a severe crossfire from the bushes on the right; kept close to the ground until orders were given to continue the pursuit, when every man rose to his feet and dashed onward. We soon came to thick brush and felled trees, in which the fleeing foe had concealed himself. Owing to these obstructions we could charge no farther. Here now we lay in the open field, while the enemy, with whom we are contending, is concealed in thick brush in front. Our brave men are falling rapidly. But do they falter? Not one! They load, rise, take deliberate aim, and fire. “I saw him fall,” they would exclaim, and then repeat the same operation with equal coolness. But I soon saw that our exposed position could not be maintained; we were fighting under too many disadvantages; our men were failing too rapidly.

After remaining under this fire for more than an hour I perceived that the regiment on my right had fallen back and the foe that had engaged it was now opening a deadly cross-fire on the Twelfth. However, I had received no orders to retreat, and continued to remain longer in this hazardous position. Finally I concluded that our colonel, and perhaps our general, had fallen, and, besides, the battery in rear, while trying to protect us, would unintentionally throw shot and shell too short and mangle our own men. To stand this state of affairs any longer I knew would be death to all, so I gave the command to retreat. The left wing, not hearing the command, was rallied before reaching the breastworks; but as soon as the order was understood no further confusion ensued. This, however, was productive of much good, as the enemy was checked in his advance, the left wing not being more than 40 yards from the woods.

The Twelfth Alabama, while advancing, charged directly through the camp of the enemy. Soon after passing it, halted, laid down, and opened a heavy volley, then charged the brush. It was while in this hazardous position that our brave colonel was slain.

After falling back to the redoubt we remained half an hour, and  <ar12_982> night having set in, retired down the road about half a mile, where we remained until morning.

The number of men carried into the fight, as near as can be ascertained, was about 408: number killed, 59; number wounded, 156. Thus more than half carried into battle were killed and wounded.

B.    B. GAYLE,
Lieutenant-Colonel, Commanding.

February 2 2015

Battle of Shiloh

Battle of Shiloh, also called the Battle of Pittsburg Landing. The name Shiloh was taken from that of a meetinghouse, 5 km (3 mi) from Pittsburg Landing, that is on the Tennessee River, 14 km (9 mi) north of Savannah, Tennessee. Here on April 6, 1862, a Confederate army of 40,000 men under General Albert S. Johnston surprised and attacked a Union army of 45,000 men under General Ulysses S. Grant. During the battle, which lasted from dawn to dusk and was one of the most desperate of the war, the Union troops were steadily driven back, but Johnston was killed, and his successor, General Pierre G. T. Beauregard, ordered operations suspended a few hours later. The following day Grant, with 25,000 reinforcements under General Don Carlos Buell, attacked the Confederates and forced them to withdraw to Corinth, Mississippi. Thus, Grant regained all the ground he had lost, and the two-day battle ended without a conclusive victory for either side. Casualties numbered more than 10,000 in each army. A national military park and cemetery commemorating the battle are located at Shiloh.

After taking Fort Donelson, Grant had wanted to move on the Confederate base in Corinth, Mississippi, where Albert Sidney Johnston, the Confederate commander in the West, was known to be assembling troops. Grant was ordered to delay his advance until Union General Don Carlos Buell, who had been operating in East Tennessee, could join him.

Early on Sunday, April 6, 1862, Johnston’s army, which had come up to the federal lines undetected, struck Grant’s army, which was encamped at Pittsburg Landing on the Tennessee River. The Battle of Shiloh followed. At the end of the second day of fighting the Union forces drove back the attackers. Shocking losses, 13,000 out of more than 62,000 Federals and 10,700 out of 40,000 Confederates, appalled both sections of the country. Although victorious, Grant was accused of lacking elementary caution and found himself reviled in the North. The South mourned the loss of Johnston, one of its ablest commanders, who was shot and bled to death.

On April 6, Confederate forces attacked Union forces under General Ulysses S. Grant at Shiloh, Tennessee. By the end of the day, the federal troops were almost defeated. Yet, during the night, reinforcements arrived, and by the next morning the Union commanded the field. When Confederate forces retreated, the exhausted federal forces did not follow. Casualties were heavy — 13,000 out of 63,000 Union soldiers died, and 11,000 of 40,000 Confederate troops were killed.

February 2 2015

Shiloh – Order of Battle


April 6-7, 1862..–Battle of Pittsburg Landing, or Shiloh, Tenn.
No. 134. — Organization of the Army of the Mississippi, April 6-7, 1862.(*)



First Brigade.


11th Louisiana.

12th Tennessee.

13th Tennessee.

22d Tennessee.

Bankhead’s battery.

Second Brigade.

Brig. Gen. A. P. STEWART

13th Arkansas.

4th Tennessee.

5th Tennessee.

33d Tennessee.

Stanford’s battery.

Brig. Gen. B. F. CHEATHAM.

First Brigade.

Brig. Gen. B. R. JOHNSON.

Mississippi battalion (Blythe’s).

2d Tennessee.

15th Tennessee.

154th Tennessee (senior).

Polk’s battery.

Second Brigade.


7th Kentucky.

1st Tennessee.

6th Tennessee.

9th Tennessee.

Smith’s battery.



First Brigade.

Col. R. L. GIBSON.

1st Arkansas.

4th Louisiana.

13th Louisiana.

19th Louisiana.

Bains’ battery.

Second Brigade.


1st Florida (battalion).

17th Louisiana.

20th Louisiana.

9th Texas.

Confederate Guards Response Battalion.

Hodgson’s battery.

Third Brigade.(++)


16th Louisiana.

18th Louisiana.

Crescent (Louisiana) Regiment.

38th Tennessee.

Ketchum’s battery.


Brig. Gen. Jones M. WITHERS.

First Brigade.

Brig. Gen. A. H. GLADDEN.

21st Alabama.

22d Alabama.

23th Alabama.

26th Alabama.

1st Louisiana.

Robertson’s battery.

Gage’s battery.

Second Brigade.

Brig. Gen. J. R. CHALMERS

5th Mississippi.

7th Mississippi.

9th Mississippi.

10th Mississippi.

51st Tennessee.

52d Tennessee.

Third Brigade.

Brig. Gen. J. K. JACKSON.

17th Alabama.

18th Alabama.

19th Alabama.

Alabama battalion.

Arkansas battalion.

2d Texas.

Girardey’s battery.

The Forty-seventh Tennessee, Colonel Hill, arrived on the field on the 7th; the Alabama and Arkansas battalions of the Third Brigade, Withers’ division, not in the battle.

Maj. Gen. W. J. HARDEE.

First Brigade.

Brig. Gen. T. C. HINDAN.

2d Arkansas.

5th Arkansas.

6th Arkansas.

7th Arkansas.

3d Confederate.

Miller’s battery.

Swett’s battery.

Second Brigade.(*)

Brig. Gen. P. R. CLEBURNE

15th Arkansas.

6th Mississippi.

5th [35th] Tennessee.

23d Tennessee.

24th Tcnnesee.

Shoup’s artillery battalion.(+)

Watson Battery.

Third Brigade.(++)

Brig. Gen. S. A.M. Wood.

7th Alabama.

16th Alabama.

8th Arkansas.

9th Arkansas Battalion.

3d Mississippi Battalion.

27th Tennessee.

44th Tennessee.

55th Tennessee.

Harper’s battery.


Brig. Gen. J. C. Breckinridge

First Brigade.(*)

Col. R. P. TRABUE.

4th Alabama Battalion.

31st Alabama.

15th Arkansas(+)

3d Kentucky.

4th Kentucky.

5th Kentucky.

Tennessee Battalion, (Crews’.)

Byrne’s battery.

Lyon’s battery.(++)

Second Brigade.

Brig. Gen. J. S. Bowen.

9th Arkansas.

10th Arkansas.

2d Confederate.

1st Missouri.

Hudson’s battery-.

Third Brigade.


15th Mississippi.

22d Mississippi.

19th Tennessee.

20th Tennessee.

28th Tennessee.

45th Tennessee.

Rutledge’s battery.

Respectfully submitted and forwarded.(§)


 General, Commanding.


 Tupelo, Miss., June 30, 1862.

February 2 2015

Gettysburg Campaign

 JUNE 3-AUGUST 1, 1863.–The Gettysburg Campaign.
No. 529.–Report of Col. S. B. Pickens, Twelfth Alabama Infantry.

July 9, 1863.

SIR: The Twelfth Alabama Regiment left Grace Church, Caroline County, Va., on June 4; arrived at Culpeper Court-House on the 7th.

On the 9th, we were marched rapidly toward Brandy Station, to assist our cavalry in a fight that was then going on, but the enemy retreating on our approach, we did not become engaged, but went into camp.

Resumed our march on the next morning, and arrived at Berryville on the 13th, where the enemy made demonstrations as if they intended to give us battle; but when we formed line of battle and advanced, they retired, leaving their camp and a great many valuables in our hands. Resumed our march in a few hours, and arrived at Martinsburg on the 14th. Finding the enemy still in possession of the town, a line of battle was formed and an advance ordered. The enemy shelled us a little, but did us no damage. We advanced steadily, and entered the town about dark; the enemy retreated.

Resumed the march on the 15th, and arrived at Carlisle, Pa., on the 27th, stopping a day or two at different places along the route. Resumed the march on the 30th, in the direction of Gettysburg.

We arrived near that place at 11 a.m. on July 1. The enemy being in heavy force between us and town, a line of battle was formed, and we advanced about a mile, when we came in sight of the enemy. We halted, and a severe artillery duel took place, which lasted about an hour. We were then ordered forward to engage the enemy. We attacked them in a strong position. After a desperate fight of about fifteen minutes, we were compelled to fall back, as the regiment on our left gave way, being flanked by a large force.

I rallied my regiment about 300 yards in the rear, and formed a line. My regiment suffered severely in this attack. It was impossible for us to hold the position we had gained any longer without being cut to pieces or compelled to surrender, the enemy having advantage of us in numbers and position. In half an hour after we fell back, we were again ordered forward, together with the entire division. We then drove the enemy before us with little loss, and were among the first to enter the town, and passed through it. Fought no more during the day, although exposed to a heavy artillery fire. We formed line of battle behind the railroad embankment, where we remained during the night and all the next day.

About 2 a.m. on July 3, we were ordered to the left, to re-enforce General Edward Johnson. We arrived there at daylight, and were soon under a severe fire of artillery and infantry, but did not really engage the enemy until 8 o’clock, when we were ordered to attack their works. This we did with spirit, and gained a hill near their breastworks, which we held for three hours, exposed to a terrific fire. The men fought bravely, and held their ground until ordered to fall back with the entire line. We retired behind the hill, where we remained under an incessant fire of artillery and musketry until 12 o’clock at night, when we withdrew and joined our division. We retired to the rear of the town, occupied and fortified the hills, where we remained until 1 o’clock on the morning of the 5th, when we commenced to fall back. We arrived at Hagerstown on July 7.

In this action, the officers and men bore themselves gallantly. Our loss was severe. Carried into the fight 271 officers and men; 2 officers killed and 6 wounded; 10 enlisted men killed and 65 wounded. Aggregate, 12 killed and 71 wounded.(*)

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

Colonel Twelfth Alabama Volunteers.

Lieut. S. H. MOORE,
Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, Rodes’ Brigade.

February 2 2015

Battle of Chancellorsville

APRIL 27-MAY 6, 1863.–The Chancellorsville Campaign.
No. 368.–Reports of Brig. Gen. R. E. Rodes, C. S. Army, commanding D. H. Hill’s division.


In the meantime the residue of Rodes’, Iverson’s, and Pender’s troops, moving forward to the left of Hall and Christie, were met and repulsed by the enemy, thus leaving the flank of the party on the heights exposed to an overwhelming force. They were compelled to fall back behind the Plank road, with the loss of over 100 men and both Alabama flags.

A second line of battle having been assembled along the log breastworks on the left of the road, composed of parts of the Third, Sixth, and Twenty-sixth Alabama, the Fifth North Carolina, under Lieutenant-Colonel [J. W.] Lea, who had just joined it, and other scattering troops, I ordered it, through Major [H. A.] Whiting, to attack, moving parallel to the Plank road. [Colonel] Hall immediately attacked the epaulements again with his two regiments, and gallantly carried them; but the troops just mentioned, who had attacked farther to the left, being again repulsed, he again fell back to the breastworks.

While this was transpiring in front, the enemy made an attack in force on my left and rear.

This attack was met by the Twelfth Alabama, Colonel [Samuel B.] Pickens, Colonel [James N.] Lightfoot, of the Sixth Alabama, with a small portion of his regiment, and some troops of Nicholls’ brigade, skillfully placed by General Iverson, and sustained against fearful odds until I ordered up Colquitt’s brigade, which quickly and handsomely repulsed it. The enemy–being repulsed decidedly here, barely holding his own in the left center, and compelled about the same time by the artillery fire from the right to abandon the epaulements–withdrew all his forces to the hill back of the Chancellor house.

The fighting on the center and left was of a most desperate character, and resulted in the loss of many valuable officers. Among them, and most to be regretted, was Maj. A. M. Gordon, of the Sixth Alabama, a young officer of great promise and great purity of character.

General Pender, speaking of the first advance of my troops, stated to me that Colonel Christie and his regiment, which he handled in magnificent style, especially attracted his attention, and that the colonel deserved promotion.

While these movements were taking place on the left, Ramseur and Doles pushed forward on the right, passed the first line of intrenchments, which had already been carried, passed the first and second lines of our troops, and became fiercely engaged. Doles, deflecting to the right, passed up a ravine behind the graveyard on Chancellor’s Hill, and finally came out in the field nearly opposite the house, driving the enemy before him as he advanced, and actually getting several hundred yards to the rear as well of those troops opposing the rest of my division as of those opposing General Anderson’s division. Subsequently he was compelled to fall back, and was directed by General Lee to take charge of a large body of prisoners. Ramseur, after vainly urging the troops in possession of the first line of intrenchments to move forward, obtained permission to pass them, and, dashing over the works, charged the second intrenched line in the most brilliant style. The struggle at this point was long and obstinate, but the charge on the left of the Plank road at this time caused the enemy to give way on his left, and this, combined with the unflinching determination of his men, carried the day and gave him possession of the works. Not being supported, he was exposed still to a galling fire from the right, with great danger of being flanked. Notwithstanding repeated efforts made by him, and by myself in person, none of the trooops in his rear would move up until the old Stonewall Brigade arrived on the ground, and gallantly advanced in conjunction with the Thirtieth North Carolina Regiment, Colonel [F. M.] Parker, of Ramseur’s brigade, which had been detached to support a battery, and was now on its return. Occupying the works on the right of Ramseur, and thus relieving him when his ammunition was nearly expended, the Stonewall Brigade pushed on, and carried the Chancellorsville heights, making the third time that they were captured. They in turn were forced to fall back,  but recaptured several of the prisoners and one of the flags taken from Colonel Hall.

At this juncture, Lieutenant-Colonel [T. H.] Carter, who had behaved with signal courage and judgment during the whole action, succeeded, in conjunction with Major Pegram, in getting several batteries in position in a field to the right, which opened with such precision and rapidity on such of the enemy’s batteries and troops as remained on the plain of Chancellorsville as finally to drive them back in utter confusion. Lieutenant-Colonel Hilary [P.] Jones, of the artillery, a most accomplished officer, had, however, before this placed ten guns near the Plank road and on the nearest ridge to the enemy’s epaulements, which had fired with marked success on the artillery stationed at the Chancellor house and on the retreating troops.

As soon as our artillery fire would permit, the heights were occupied by the infantry, and, by order of General Stuart, I took charge of arranging all the troops found on the field in line of battle parallel to the Plank road. The earliest troops on the ground were Colonel [J. M.] Brockenbrough’s and another Virginia regiment, belonging, I think, to the same brigade. These were subsequently withdrawn, and my troops located as follows: Iverson’s brigade on right, extending from the Chancellor house up the Plank road, next Rodes’ brigade, then Ramseur’s brigade, and finally Doles’ brigade–all parallel and close to the road. Doles’ was subsequently thrown across the road and at an angle of 45 degrees with it, connecting with General Pender, by whom this line was continued on to the left. Colston’s division, now attached to my command, was located on the Turnpike road, to the right and in continuation of my line. Colquitt’s brigade was placed en echelon with reference both to Iverson and Colston, and 100 yards in rear, to enable our artillery to operate in the interval. This position was strongly fortified, and was held without molestation until Tuesday morning, when I pushed forward my whole line of skirmishers to feel the enemy. He was discovered to be in very great force, both of infantry and artillery, with formidable intrenchments.


Strength and Casualties of brigades of D. H. Hill’s division, commanded by Brig. Gen. R. E. Rodes, in battle of Chancellorsville.

O          Officers.               M         Men.                 A          Aggregate.


-Strength.–        ————-Casualties.—————

Killed.               Wounded.          Missing.

Command.                     O          M         O          M         O          M         O          M         A

Doles’ brigade                  133       1,489    4          62         31         312       ….         28         437

Iverson’s brigade              135       1,660    9          69         26         305       5          72         486

Ramseur’s brigade            129       1,380    12         142       41         485       5          103       788

Rodes’ brigade                 151       1,744    5          85         42         496       21         167       816

Colquitt’s brigade(*)         130       1,600    ….         9          8          120       28         284       449

Total                            678       7,873    30         367       148       1,718    59         654       2,976


Brigadier-General, Commanding Division.

APRIL 27-MAY 6, 1863.–The Chancellorsville Campaign.
No. 369.–Reports of Col. Edward A. O’Neal, Twenty-sixth Alabama Infantry commanding Rodes’ brigade.

May 12, 1863.

SIR: In obedience to orders, I have the honor to submit the following report of the operations of Rodes’ brigade during the eight days’ campaign, commencing on April 29 and ending on May 6:

Early in the morning of April 29, I received orders to hold the brigade in readiness to move at a moment’s warning, and about 8 o’clock the brigade was formed on the road, the right resting on Round Oak Church; thence, after a short delay, we moved to Hamilton’s Crossing. Here I was ordered to put the brigade in line of battle in a skirt of pine woods, about 1 mile to the right of the railroad and just in rear of our works. The brigade rested here during the balance of the day and until 3 o’clock next morning, when I was ordered to move the brigade to the right about a half mile and place it in the intrenchments, the right resting on Massaponax Creek and the left on the Bowling Green road. During the day the enemy’s batteries across the river shelled a portion of the line, the Third and Sixth Alabama Regiments, but, being protected by the earthworks and the hill, no damage was done.

At 3 o’clock on the morning of May 1, I moved the brigade to Hamilton’s Crossing, left in front, and thence to the Plank road, some 7 or 8 miles, where I was ordered to prepare for immediate action, to support the forces of General Anderson, who were engaging the enemy. Being in rear of General Colquitt’s brigade, I was directed to connect with him and move as he moved. At this point the men were ordered to take off and pile their knapsacks, and, facing by the rear rank, I moved the brigade across an open field to a public road, and then down it about I mile, where we rested in a wood till late in the evening, when I received orders to march back to the Plank road, and, after reaching it, to halt the brigade and send back for the knapsacks. Having obtained the baggage, I moved down the Plank road about 2 miles and bivouacked for the night.

Early on the morning of May 2, the brigade was moved forward on the Plank road about 1 mile, and thence, taking a road to the left, passed the furnace and formed in line of battle, after a march of some 10 or 12 miles, beyond the Turnpike road, just above its junction with the Plank road and in rear of the enemy. The brigade was formed perpendicular to the road and on the left of it, with the right regiment (the Third Alabama) resting on the road and connecting with General Doles’, which was on the right of the road.

About 5.30 o’clock the order to advance was given, and very soon the corps of sharpshooters, under Major [Eugene] Blackford, of the Fifth Alabama, were engaged with the enemy’s pickets. The brigade moved rapidly and steadily forward, and in a few minutes was engaged, delivering a regular and telling fire. We drove the enemy from his first line of breastworks, and, pursuing him with spirit and rapidity, soon came upon his second line of works, which were carried after only a moment’s delay. At this time the enemy’s batteries poured upon us–especially the right wing, the Third and Sixth Alabama Regiments–a shower of grape and canister. Still advancing, we continued to drive the enemy before us, and passed to his third line, consisting of log works, which were immediately carried, the enemy giving only one volley before he fled. Darkness coming on, the pursuit was discontinued.

In this short space of time we drove the enemy before us about 2 miles, and from three breastworks–two of earth and one of logs–and two abatis. We captured a considerable number of prisoners. Capt. W. T. Renfro, commanding the right wing of the Fifth Alabama, after Colonel [E. L.] Hobson had been wounded, brought in 225, and Colonel [James N.] Lightfoot, of the Sixth Alabama, 105. Among the prisoners was Colonel [Warren W.] Packer, Fifth Connecticut, and several other officers. We captured three pieces of artillery and part of a fourth piece, which was claimed by another brigade. We also captured a lot of ammunition and a quantity of small-arms.

The Third Alabama captured and have now in possession two stand of Federal artillery colors, and the Sixth Alabama captured one battery flag.

Being with the brigade throughout this brilliant charge, I can personally bear witness to the gallant bearing of the officers and the daring, dashing courage of the men. In this connection, permit me also to state the order, regularity, and precision with which the several regimental commanders moved and handled their commands throughout this charge. The Third Alabama, under the command of Captains [M. F.] Bonham, [John W.] Chester, and [Watkins] Phelan, was ordered to move along the road, and perpendicular to it, and was the battalion of direction, and the other regiments (the Sixth, under Lieutenant-Colo-nel Lightfoot and Major [A. M.] Gordon; the Twelfth, under Colonel [Samuel B.] Pickens and Captain [A.] Proskaner; the Twenty-sixth, under Lieutenant-Colonel [John S.] Garvin and Major [David F.] Bryan, and the Fifth, under Colonel Hall and Lieutenant-Colonel Hobson) moved in line of battle with this regiment; and although passing through a dense and tangled forest for a mile, all the regiments were connected and moved in a regular, unbroken line, the officers exhibiting the greatest coolness and daring, cheering on their men by both voice and example. <ar39_952>

In this charge, Lieut. Col. E. L. Hobson was wounded while gallantly rushing in front of his men near the enemy’s second line of works. Major Bryan, Twenty-sixth Alabama, was also wounded near the same place, and about the same time, while bravely performing his duties.

Capt. Watkins Phelan, who commanded the left wing of the Third Alabama, was also wounded in this charge. He, with Captain Bonham, who commanded the regiment, and Captain Chester, who commanded the right wing of the Third Alabama, acted most gallantly, and led their regiments with great success. And it is but simple justice to say that each regiment did its whole duty.

As soon as the night put an end to the pursuit, I formed the brigade, and, having had ammunition issued to the men, reported to the brigadier-general commanding division for orders. He ordered me to move to the earthworks to the left of the road (the second line we had carried) and to relieve General Paxton, which was done, and there we rested for the night.

About 6 o’clock Sunday morning, May 3, I received orders to advance, the brigade being in the third or reserve line of battle. We moved forward under heavy shelling in an open field and then through a dense woods for about 1 mile, when we came up with our second line of battle and passed through it. I inquired, as we passed, whose brigade, and was informed it was General Paxton’s. We continued to move forward until we came to some other troops, when I ordered a halt, and found that the Third Alabama had lapped over and got in front of the Sixth Alabama–the regiment immediately on its left. While rectifying the line, the brigadier-general commanding rode up and ordered me to the road with him, and, explaining to me the position of the forces on my right and the direction I was to pursue, ordered me to push forward over our first line of battle and dislodge the enemy from Chancellor’s Hill.

In company with Major [H. A.] Whiting, assistant adjutant-general, I immediately started in a run for the center of the brigade, to execute this order, and, when near the center, was stricken down by the fuse of a shell, which disabled me for the balance of the day. I directed Major Whiting to move the brigade forward, and to inform Colonel Hall, of the Fifth Alabama, that the command devolved on him. Colonel Hall was at the time on the extreme left of the line with his regiment. The brigade moved forward under a most terrific storm Of shell, grape, canister, and musketry, and for what took place afterward I respectfully refer you to the report of Colonel Hall, who so bravely led it, and that of Colonel Pickens, who so gallantly resisted the advance on our left, and ask that these reports may be taken and considered a part of this.

In obedience to orders from the corps commander to report what standards were captured and which lost, I have the honor to report that the colors of the Fifth Alabama Regiment were captured by the enemy in the attack upon the intrenchments at Chancellor’s house on the morning of the 3d instant. This regiment, supported by only a portion of the Twenty-sixth Alabama and four companies of Iverson’s brigade, was the first to charge and carry the enemy’s works near the Chancellor house. Having taken possession of the epaulements which commanded the Plank road, this regiment moved forward in the charge considerably in advance of the right, and, being unsupported by the brigade on its left, had its left flank turned by a superior force, and was forced to retire from the works. In doing so, the color-bearer was wounded, and with the colors and over 100 of its men were surrounded <ar39_953> and captured. Retiring only to the Plank road, this regiment again charged, and took these works without support, and a second time had to retire before superior numbers. Captured in the midst of the enemy’s guns and intrenchments, and some time before any other troops reached that point, the loss of their flag is one of the highest evidences of the gallant and daring service rendered by the Fifth Alabama Regiment in the action of that day.

I cannot close this report without calling special attention to that assiduous attention to every duty, and that calm courage, coolness, and self-possession exhibited, under all circumstances, during these trying days, by Maj. H. A. Whiting, assistant adjutant-general, and most respectfully recommend him to the commanding general for promotion. He was invaluable to me throughout the two engagements of Saturday and Sunday.

I am also greatly indebted to Adjutants [A. H.] Pickett and [Samuel H] Moore, of the’ Third and Twenty-sixth Alabama Regiments, who acted as aides, for valuable services in fearlessly carrying and delivering orders.

The brigade inspector, Lieutenant [Daniel] Partridge, [jr.,] was energetic and untiring in the performance of his duties, and rendered efficient aid.

I desire also to mention Mr. Webb Woodruff and Mr. Rittenhouse Moore, who were with me and did good service.

Inclosed you will find the reports of regimental commanders, to which I call special attention; also, lists of casualties.(*)

1 am, captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

Colonel, Commanding Brigade.

Capt. G. PEYTON,
Assistant Adjutant-General.

APRIL 27-MAY 6, 1863.–The Chancellorsville Campaign.
No. 375.–Reports of Col. Samuel B. Pickens, Twelfth Alabama Infantry.

May 5, 1863.

CAPTAIN: In obedience to orders, I make the following report: About 5.30 p.m., May 2, the Twelfth Alabama Regiment was formed into line of battle, and ordered forward with the remainder of the brigade. We had advanced about 500 yards when we received a heavy volley from the enemy. The command “Charge” was immediately given; the regiment rushed in, driving the enemy before them rapidly. The haste in which the pursuit was kept up seemed to strike terror into the enemy, as they fled, doing comparatively little injury. We had driven them about 1½ miles, when the brigade commander ordered me to halt my regiment, to let the second line of battle go in advance, as all of us were much exhausted. I succeeded in halting about 30 of my men, <ar39_961> but the others pressed onward. I left the few men I had halted under an officer, and pressed on after the remainder of the regiment, but I went half a mile before I overtook them; they had passed over two formidable works, and assisted in taking several pieces of artillery. Colors of the Twelfth Alabama Regiment were about the first in the breastworks. When I joined them, I found not only my men, but officers and men from every regiment in the brigade. Being the senior officer present, I formed them all (those from other regiments also) into line, and marched them back about half a mile where a portion of the brigade had already been formed, that being the place we were ordered to form. The brigade commander soon formed the brigade into line, and marched us into camp for the night.

I carried into the fight:

Commissioned officers                             26

Privates and non-commissioned officers      304

Total                                                     330


Killed and wounded in the engagement of May 2:


Commissioned officers killed         1

Enlisted men killed                       5

Total killed                                6

Commissioned officers wounded    3

Enlisted men wounded                  29

Total wounded                           32

About 6.30 a.m. on May 3, the Twelfth Alabama Regiment was formed into line of battle and ordered forward with the remainder of the brigade. The brigade formed a part of the third line of battle. We had advanced about a mile when we came up with the second line of battle; this we passed. We passed over the wooden breastworks in the woods on the extreme left of our lines, and advanced near the first line of battle, which was then engaging the enemy. We were soon flanked, and fell back to the breastworks.

Learning here that Colonel [E. A.] O’Neal had been wounded and had left the field, and not seeing Colonel [J. M.] Hall (next in command), I immediately formed my regiment and portions of the Third, Sixth, and Twenty-sixth Alabama, and determined to hold the works, if possible. Learning from skirmishers that the enemy were advancing perpendicular to the breastworks, endeavoring to flank the works and turn our left, I immediately reported the fact to General Iverson (who just then came up), and asked for orders. He ordered me to form the portion of the brigade I was commanding perpendicular to the breastworks, right resting at the works. The brigade was not long in this position before our forces again advanced from the breastworks, leaving me to protect the flank. The enemy was soon seen advancing in heavy force. I allowed them to advance within musket-range, when I opened on them. I held them in check for over an hour, until the ammunition was nearly expended–a great many men had fired all their cartridges–when I was relieved by General Colquitt.

The brigade acted very gallantly, and fought desperately. During the time I held the enemy in check, they were re-enforced three times. After being relieved by General Colquitt, I retired to the rear for ammunition, and did not again enter the fight.

Loss in my regiment (Twelfth Alabama) on May 3:

Officers and men.           Killed.   Wounded.          Missing.            Total

Commissioned  Officers.   1          8                      1                          10

Enlisted men                   6          47                     19                     72

Total(*)                         7          55                     20                     82

Total loss both days:


Officers and men.           Killed.   Wounded.          Missing.            Total

Commissioned  Officers.   2          11                     1                      14

Enlisted men                   11         76                     19                     106

Total(*)                         13         87                     20                     120

I know no instance of individual gallantry; all under my command acted well.


Colonel Twelfth Alabama Volunteers.

Capt. H. A. WHITING,
Asst. Adjt. Gen., Rodes’ Brigade.


CAPTAIN: In obedience to orders, I make the following report of the operations of my regiment since leaving camp on April 29:

About 10 a.m. on April 29, the Twelfth Alabama Regiment left camp and marched directly to Hamilton’s Crossing, and formed line of battle in the trenches about 500 yards to the right of the railroad.

Here the regiment remained until 3 o’clock the next morning (April 30), when we marched half a mile to the right, and again took position in the trenches.

The regiment remained at this place until 2.30 o’clock the next morning (May 1), when we commenced moving to the left. We crossed the railroad and marched 8 or 10 miles, when (about 1 p.m.) the regiment was halted, line of battle formed, and we advanced to engage the enemy. After maneuvering in the woods for some time, the regiment was placed on the first line of battle, where we were exposed to the enemy’s shells. Here we remained until near sunset, when the regiment was ordered back to the Plank road, and took up a line of march farther to the left. After marching about 2 miles, we camped for the night.

Next morning (May 2), we again commenced the march to the left/to’ ward the enemy’s right flank). After marching about 10 miles, making a circuit, we reached our position to the enemy’s right about 3.30 p.m. Line of battle was soon formed, and at 5.30 p.m. the advance was commenced through very thick woods. We had advanced about 400 yards when the enemy poured a heavy volley into our line. The command “Charge” was immediately given, when the regiment rushed forward with impetuosity, driving the enemy before them. The haste in which <ar39_963> the pursuit was commenced and kept up seemed to strike terror into the enemy, as they fled rapidly, doing us little injury. The enemy had been driven about 1½ miles, when the brigade commander (Colonel [E. A.] O’Neal) ordered a halt, to let the second line of battle go in advance. I succeeded in halting about 30 of my men; the others, not hearing the command, pressed on. Finding that most of my men had kept on, I left the few I had halted in charge of an officer, and endeavored to overtake the others, but they had gone half a mile before I came up with them. They had assisted in taking two formidable breastworks and in capturing three pieces of artillery. The colors of the Twelfth Alabama were among the first planted on the works where the artillery was taken. When I came up with my regiment, I also found portions of the other regiments in the brigade. Being the senior officer present, I formed them in line, and marched them back to where the brigade commander had first ordered the brigade to halt. My regiment was again soon formed, and put into camp for the night.

I carried into the fight on May 2 about 304 non-commissioned officers and privates, and 26 commissioned officers ; total, 330.

Killed and wounded in fight of May 2:

Officers and men.                                   Killed.   Wounded.          Missing.            Total

Commissioned  Officers.                           1          3                      4                      8

Non-commissioned officers and privates.     5          29                     34                     68

Total(*)                                                 6          32                     38                     76

About 6.30 a.m. on May 3, the Twelfth Alabama Regiment was formed in line of battle and ordered forward (regiment formed a part of third line of battle). We advanced through the woods about a mile, under a heavy fire of shell and shot, when we came up with the second line of battle. This we passed, but in so doing some confusion occurred. The regiment passed over the wooden breastworks in the woods (on the extreme left) from which the enemy had been driven in the early part of the morning, and then we advanced near the first line of battle, which was then engaging The enemy. Just at this time our left was flanked, and the regiment was compelled to fall back to the breastworks. Here I again formed the regiment, and prepared to hold the works.

At this time, General Iverson coming up, I reported to him (Colonel O’Neal having been wounded) that the enemy were advancing on the works and endeavoring to flank them and turn our left. He ordered me to take position perpendicular to the breastworks, the right of our brigade (I was then commanding it) resting on the works. We had not been in this position long before General Iverson’s brigade advanced from the works, leaving my regiment and others exposed. I moved by the right flank a short distance, throwing my regiment across the breastworks and in advance of them. I soon saw the enemy advancing in heavy force. I ordered the men to lie down and wait until the enemy came within musket-range; this they did. Soon the firing commenced, and the fight became general. The firing was terrific. I held the position for over an hour against great odds, the enemy having been re-en-forced three times. Almost every round of ammunition was expended, when General Colquitt came to our relief. I then moved to the rear for ammunition. As soon as we were supplied, I moved my regiment (together with the portion of the brigade then under my command) down <ar39_964> the Plank road, and was placed in the trenches near large brick house, where my regiment remained until we were marched back to camp, on May 6.

I must say that our success in holding the enemy in check on our extreme left, and preventing them from flanking us, is in a great measure due to the skill General Iverson showed in placing in position the different portions of regiments and brigades that had become separated from their proper commands.

During the battles of the 2d and 3d, I was struck with the coolness and gallantry displayed by Colonel O’Neal, commanding brigade, and Capt. H. A. Whiting, assistant adjutant-general. They were up with the line of battle in the thickest of the fight, and their action inspired confidence in officers and men.

Killed and wounded in fight of May 3:


Officers and men.                                   Killed.   Wounded.          Total

Commissioned  Officers.                           1          8                      9

Non-commissioned officers and privates.     7          47                     54

Total(*)                                                 8          55                     63

Killed, wounded, and missing for both days (2d and 3d) :


Officers and men.                                   Killed.   Wounded.          Missing.            Total

Commissioned  Officers.                           2          11                     1                      14

Non-commissioned officers and privates.     12         76                     10                     98

Total(*)                                                 14         87                     11                     112


Colonel Twelfth Alabama Volunteers.

Capt. H. A. WHITING,
Asst. Adjt. Gen., Rodes’ Brigade.

 APRIL 27-MAY 6, 1863.–The Chancellorsville Campaign.
No. 426.–Confederate Roll of Honor.
Twelfth Regiment of Infantry:

Capt. H. W. Cox,(*) Co. B.
Private Louis Dondero, Co. A.
Private R. W. May, Co. B.
Sergt. William Lawless, Co. C.
Private J. E. Bailey, Co. D.
Private C. H. Hunter, Co. E.
Private P. W. Chappell, Co. F
Private R. B. Mitchell, Co. G.
Private W. S. Brown, Co, H.
Private H. N. Wooten, Co. I.
Private Thomas H. Eady, Co. K.

Twenty-sixth Regiment of Infantry:

First. Lieut. E. S. Stuckey, Co. B.
Private L. Walters, Co. A.
Private Jos. H. Bounds, Co. B.
Sergt. J. H. Lockwell, Co. C.
Private J. C. Pennington, Co. D.
Private Jos. Munsel, Co. E.
Private James H. Dewdie, Co. F.
Corpl. Jesse Parsons, Co. G.
Private D. H. Spraddle, Co. H.
Sergt. D. Butler, Co. I.
Private B. F. Smith, Co. K.